Lexikon's History of Computing

Examples of Vacuum Tubes in Computers

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Vacuum Tube Chronology of Development

Vacuum Tubes and Transistors

Vacuum Tubes in the ENIAC (1946) (Photos)

Vacuum Tubes (IBM Pluggable Gangcircuit) (1951)

Vacuum Tubes (IBM)

Vacuum Tubes and Transistors

Vacuum Tubes: UNIVAC

Vacuum Tube Remington Rand UNIVAC

Vacuum Tubes: Bendix



The biggest advancement, however, came in the 1970's when microprocessor technology allowed transistor circuitry to be miniaturized onto a tiny chip of silicon. Silicon is a type of semiconductor. During chip production, silicon wafers were used to create many individual chips. (See Silicon Wafer with Chips).

Example of Microprocessor Chips

Microprocessor Chip (Intel 4004) (1969)

Microprocessor Chip (Intel 8008) (1972)

Microprocessor Chip (Intel 8088) (1981)

Microprocessor Chip (Intel 80286) (1982)

Microprocessor Chip (Intel 80386) (1985)

Microprocessor Chip (Intel 80486) (1989)

Microprocessor Chip (Intel 80586) (1993)

Microprocessor Chip (RCA 1802) (1974)

Microprocessor Chip (Rockwell R6511)

Microprocessor Mainframe CPU

Microprocessor History

Microprocessor Table: Intel


Computers now come in various sizes, from the large supercomputers down to laptops, palmtops, and microcomputers on a single chip.

Examples of Computers by Size

Computers by Size


Early Computers by Square Footage

 Photo Examples of Computers of Various Sizes

Early Large Computer System: Datamatic

 Large Supercomputer

Large IBM Mainframe

 Large Minicomputer: DEC

Desktop Computer: IBM PC

Early Portable: Osborne 1

Early Laptop: Zenith

Early Notebook Computer

Palmtop Computer


Example of Relatively New Technology

IBM NetVista 1.3 Gigahertz Personal Computer (2001)

Brief Timeline Chart

Microcomputer Photos

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