Lexikon's History of Computing

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Chronology: Who Was First in Computing?

From Manual Methods to Electronic Machines

Misc. Early Non-Electronic Machines

Five Generations of Computers

1939 - Konrad Zuse and the First Computer

1940 - John Atanasoff's Computer

Secret Code Breaking Machines

Largest Early Computers by Size

1946 - World's Largest Computer - ENIAC

1949-1950 - Computers and MIT

1950 - Computers at the National Bureau of Standards

1951 - UNIVAC Computers

LEO Computers (UK) (1950s)

1952 - EDVAC Computer

1950s - Early Computing and IBM

1952 - Gamma-3

1953 - Electrodata Datatron

  1955 - Datamatic 1000

1960s and Beyond --- Early Minicomputers

Early Vacuum Tube Technology

Tapes, Disks, Storage Devices 

Relays, Transistors, Circuits

Microprocessor Technology

Microcomputer Photos

Handheld Electronic Calculators

Computer Toys, Learning Aids, Games

Photo Gallery of Computer Pioneers, Scientists…

Core Memory

UNISYS - Burroughs-
Sperry - Remington

Largest Computer


Early Microcomputers



Master Index


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A Chronology of Historical Firsts In Computing


Who Was First? (Historical Firsts)



From Manual Methods to Electronic Machines


Evolution of Counting and Calculating



Misc. Early Non-Electronic Machines



Pascalline calculator (1642)

Leibniz Wheel (1671)

Scheutz Calculating Machine (1855)

Thatcher Calculator (1881)

Hollerith Punched Card Tabulator (1890)

Brunsviga Calculator (1892)

Graphic Typewriter (1895)

Early TIM Calculator

Adix Calculator - Germany (1903)

TIM Calculator - Berlin, Germany 1907

Lightning Adding Machine (1908)

Brunsviga Mechanical Calculator (1910)

Seidel & Naumann Calculator, Dresden, Germany 1910

Burroughs Adding Machine (1911)

Burroughs Class 3 Adding Machine

Addi Calculator with Printer

A Detailed History of the Comptometer Machines

Powers Company Plain Sorter (1920's)

Loga Calculator (1920)

Marchant calculator (1920)

Listing Totaling Machine (circa. 1920's)

Remington Rand Adding Machine (1930s)

Stima Calculator - Switzerland (1930)

Differential Analyzer (Bush) (1931)

Victor Adding Machine (circa 1939)

Geniac Computer Kit (1955)

Slide Rules (1970s)



From Tubes to Transistors to Microchips


Five Generations of Computers



Beginnings of the INTERNET





A List of Links to All Photos


Master Photo Gallery Index



Photo Gallery -- People


Computer Pioneers, Scientists, Entrepreneurs



1939 - Konrad Zuse and the First Computer


Z3 Machine



1940 - John Atanasoff's Computer


The ABC Machine



1940's - Secret Codebreaking Machines


The Bombe



1946 - World's Largest Computer


ENIAC Photos Volume I


ENIAC Photos Volume II



1949 - 1950 - Computers and MIT


MIT Whirlwind Computer


TX-0 Computer (1953)



1950 - Computing at the NBS


SWAC (National Bureau of Standards computer - 1950)


SEAC (National Bureau of Standards computer - 1950)



1951 -UNIVAC Becomes a Household Name



UNIVAC Digital Recording Tape (1950's)

UNIVAC Vacuum Tube (1950's)

UNIVAC Tube Board (1950's)

UNIVAC Small Diode Board (1950's)

UNIVAC Core Memory (1950's)

UNIVAC Resistor Board (1950's)

UNIVAC Circuit Boards (1950's)

UNIVAC 1107 Computer

UNIVAC 9200 (1966)

UNIVAC 9300 (1966)


LEO Computers (Lyons Electronic Office)


LEO Computers (UK) (1950s)


1952 - EDVAC Computer


EDVAC Photos



1944 -1970 - Early Computing and IBM


IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (1944)

IBM 604 Calculator, Pluggable Unit (1948)

IBM 604 Computer Assembly Line

IBM Punched Cards

IBM Vacuum Tube (1950's)

IBM 701 (1952)

IBM 650 Computer (1953)

IBM 704 Computer (1953)

IBM 705 Computer (1954)

IBM 305 RAMAC Computer (1956)

IBM Programming Advertisement (1957)

IBM 709 Computer (1957)

IBM 1401 Computer (1959)

SAGE Computer System (1963)

IBM-System/360 (1964)

IBM System/3 Minicomputer (1970)



1952 - Gamma-3 Computer


Gamma-3 Computer (1952)



1952 - Engineering Computer by Northrop Aircraft


MADDIDA engineering computer by Northrop Aircraft (1952)



1953 - Electrodata Datatron


Datatron Computer Console (Electrodata) 1953



1955 - Datamatic Data Processing Computer


DATAmatic 1000 Large Scale Data Processing System (1955)




1960 - First General Purpose Minicomputer - DEC PDP-1


DEC PDP-1 Minicomputer (1960)



Early Vacuum Tube Technology in Computers


ENIAC Computer Photos - Volume I (circa 1946)

IBM Vacuum Tube (1950's)

UNIVAC Vacuum Tube (1950's)

UNIVAC Tube Board (1950's)

Williams Tube Memory (1950s)

Vacuum Tubes (IBM Pluggable Gangcircuit) (1951)

Largest Vacuum Tube Computer - SAGE



Relays, Transistors and Circuits


Electromechanical Relay (1950)


TX-0 Computer (1953)

NCR 304 - First All Solid State Business Computer (1957)



Microprocessor Technology



Intel 80386 Microprocessor Chip (1986)

Mainframe Microprocessor Chip & Pentium Chip

Microprocessor Chip (Z80A) in Osborne PC



Early Minicomputers


DEC PDP-1 Minicomputer (1960)

DEC PDP 8 (1964)

DEC PDP 12 (1969)

DEC PDP 8 Computer

IBM System/3 Minicomputer (1970)

Wang VS 100 Minicomputer (circa 1980)





CDC-6600 Computer Console (1964)

Cray-1 SuperComputer (1976)

ASCI Option Red Supercomputer (1998)



Tapes, Disks, Storage Devices, CRTs


UNIVAC Digital Recording Tape (1950's)

UNIVAC -1 Tape Units (1951)

Uniservo Tape Device (1950s)

Tape Drive Unit - Midwestern Digital Model M4000 (1967)

Tape Drive Unit - Potter SC-1080 (1967)

8 Inch Floppy Disk

Osborne Portable Computer - Floppy Disk Drives (1981)

Osborne I Cathode Ray Tube assembly "CRT" (1981)

Disk Pack Storage Media (1988)

Disk Storage Media Compared

Tandy Computer Cassette Program

Hitachi External CD ROM Drive (1991)

Floppy Diskette Brands




 Handheld Electronic Calculators


HEWLETT-PACKARD 35 - First Scientific Handheld Calculator (1972)

Handheld calculator sizes: Then-and-now, comparison

HEWLETT-PACKARD 32E Handheld Calculator (1978)

Busicom Calculator (1972)

HEWLETT-PACKARD 35 - First Scientific Handheld Calculator (1972)

Litronix handheld calculator (1973)

National Semiconductor handheld calculator 600 (1973)

Commodore 885D handheld calculator

Commodore 996R handheld calculator

Edmund Scientific handheld calculator

Commodore CG986R handheld calculator

Teal 817 handheld calculator

Sperry Remington 665 Handheld Calculator (1972)

Montgomery Ward P10 handheld calculator (1974)

TI 1200 handheld calculator (1975)

Rockwell 10R handheld calculator

Rockwell 24K pocket calculator

Novus 850 Calculator (1970s)

Radio Shack EC 226 handheld calculator

Sperry Remington SSR8 (1975)

Facit Handheld Printing Calculator (circa 1980)

Albinar handheld calculator (1980)

SC44 handheld calculator

Mickey Mouse calculator (1980s)

Actronics Coin Bank Calculator (1980s)

APFmark84 handheld calculator

Sears SLC89 handheld calculator

Little Professor handheld calculator (1981)

More Handheld Calculator Models

Star Trek Communicator Calculator



Computer Toys, Learning Aids, etc.


Geniac Computer Kit (1955)

Digicomp Computer Kit (1963)

Pong Game Unit

Playskool Computer Toy (1972)

Mattel Computer Gin Game (1979)

Merlin Computer Game (1978)

Mattel Discovery System computer toy (1980)

Alphie II (Learning Toy) (1980's)

Space Invader (1981)

Little Professor handheld calculator (1981)

Donkey Kong Game Unit (1982)

Actronics Coin Bank Calculator (1980s)

Tommy Tutor toy computer (1980)

Learning Window computer toy (1985)

Talkatron (Learning Computer) (1985)

Pac-Man Staying Power


Core Memory

Core Memory (UNIVAC) (1950's)

Core Memory (UNIVAC III)

Core Memory: 1960's

Core Memory CDC 6600 (1964)

Core Memory: Data General Nova (1972)


Unisys - Burroughs - Sperry - Remington

UNISYS - Article on the Pre-History of UNISYS

UNISYS - History (in Glossary)

Remington Rand's First Computer

Sperry Gyroscope Company, Sperry Rand, Product Examples

UNIVAC Systems Chronology



Copyright © 1982-2002, Lexikon Services "History of Computing" ISBN 0-944601-78-2