Lexikon's History of Computing

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Chronology: Who Was First in Computing?

From Manual Methods to Electronic Machines

Misc. Early Non-Electronic Machines

Five Generations of Computers

1939 - Konrad Zuse and the First Computer

1940 - John Atanasoff's Computer

Secret Code Breaking Machines

Largest Early Computers by Size

1946 - World's Largest Computer - ENIAC

1949-1950 - Computers and MIT

1950 - Computers at the National Bureau of Standards

1951 - UNIVAC Computers

LEO Computers (UK) (1950s)

1952 - EDVAC Computer

1950s - Early Computing and IBM

1952 - Gamma-3

1953 - Electrodata Datatron

  1955 - Datamatic 1000

1960s and Beyond --- Early Minicomputers

Early Vacuum Tube Technology

Tapes, Disks, Storage Devices 

Relays, Transistors, Circuits

Microprocessor Technology

Microcomputer Photos

Handheld Electronic Calculators

Computer Toys, Learning Aids, Games

Photo Gallery of Computer Pioneers, Scientists…

Core Memory

UNISYS - Burroughs-
Sperry - Remington

Largest Computer

 

Early Microcomputers
Chronology

Chronology

Glossary

Master Index

 

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A Chronology of Historical Firsts In Computing

 

Who Was First? (Historical Firsts)

 

 

From Manual Methods to Electronic Machines

 

Evolution of Counting and Calculating

 

 

Misc. Early Non-Electronic Machines

 

Abacus

Pascalline calculator (1642)

Leibniz Wheel (1671)

Scheutz Calculating Machine (1855)

Thatcher Calculator (1881)

Hollerith Punched Card Tabulator (1890)

Brunsviga Calculator (1892)

Graphic Typewriter (1895)

Early TIM Calculator

Adix Calculator - Germany (1903)

TIM Calculator - Berlin, Germany 1907

Lightning Adding Machine (1908)

Brunsviga Mechanical Calculator (1910)

Seidel & Naumann Calculator, Dresden, Germany 1910

Burroughs Adding Machine (1911)

Burroughs Class 3 Adding Machine

Addi Calculator with Printer

A Detailed History of the Comptometer Machines

Powers Company Plain Sorter (1920's)

Loga Calculator (1920)

Marchant calculator (1920)

Listing Totaling Machine (circa. 1920's)

Remington Rand Adding Machine (1930s)

Stima Calculator - Switzerland (1930)

Differential Analyzer (Bush) (1931)

Victor Adding Machine (circa 1939)

Geniac Computer Kit (1955)

Slide Rules (1970s)

 

 

From Tubes to Transistors to Microchips

 

Five Generations of Computers

 

 

Beginnings of the INTERNET

 

ARPA and the ARPANET

 

 

A List of Links to All Photos

 

Master Photo Gallery Index

 

 

Photo Gallery -- People

 

Computer Pioneers, Scientists, Entrepreneurs

 

 

1939 - Konrad Zuse and the First Computer

 

Z3 Machine

 

 

1940 - John Atanasoff's Computer

 

The ABC Machine

 

 

1940's - Secret Codebreaking Machines

 

The Bombe

 

 

1946 - World's Largest Computer

 

ENIAC Photos Volume I

 

ENIAC Photos Volume II

 

 

1949 - 1950 - Computers and MIT

 

MIT Whirlwind Computer

 

TX-0 Computer (1953)

 

 

1950 - Computing at the NBS

 

SWAC (National Bureau of Standards computer - 1950)

 

SEAC (National Bureau of Standards computer - 1950)

 

 

1951 -UNIVAC Becomes a Household Name

 

UNIVAC I

UNIVAC Digital Recording Tape (1950's)

UNIVAC Vacuum Tube (1950's)

UNIVAC Tube Board (1950's)

UNIVAC Small Diode Board (1950's)

UNIVAC Core Memory (1950's)

UNIVAC Resistor Board (1950's)

UNIVAC Circuit Boards (1950's)

UNIVAC 1107 Computer

UNIVAC 9200 (1966)

UNIVAC 9300 (1966)

 

LEO Computers (Lyons Electronic Office)

 

LEO Computers (UK) (1950s)

 

1952 - EDVAC Computer

 

EDVAC Photos

 

 

1944 -1970 - Early Computing and IBM

 

IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (1944)

IBM 604 Calculator, Pluggable Unit (1948)

IBM 604 Computer Assembly Line

IBM Punched Cards

IBM Vacuum Tube (1950's)

IBM 701 (1952)

IBM 650 Computer (1953)

IBM 704 Computer (1953)

IBM 705 Computer (1954)

IBM 305 RAMAC Computer (1956)

IBM Programming Advertisement (1957)

IBM 709 Computer (1957)

IBM 1401 Computer (1959)

SAGE Computer System (1963)

IBM-System/360 (1964)

IBM System/3 Minicomputer (1970)

 

 

1952 - Gamma-3 Computer

 

Gamma-3 Computer (1952)

 

 

1952 - Engineering Computer by Northrop Aircraft

 

MADDIDA engineering computer by Northrop Aircraft (1952)

 

 

1953 - Electrodata Datatron

 

Datatron Computer Console (Electrodata) 1953

 

 

1955 - Datamatic Data Processing Computer

 

DATAmatic 1000 Large Scale Data Processing System (1955)

 

 

 

1960 - First General Purpose Minicomputer - DEC PDP-1

 

DEC PDP-1 Minicomputer (1960)

 

 

Early Vacuum Tube Technology in Computers

 

ENIAC Computer Photos - Volume I (circa 1946)

IBM Vacuum Tube (1950's)

UNIVAC Vacuum Tube (1950's)

UNIVAC Tube Board (1950's)

Williams Tube Memory (1950s)

Vacuum Tubes (IBM Pluggable Gangcircuit) (1951)

Largest Vacuum Tube Computer - SAGE

 

 

Relays, Transistors and Circuits

 

Electromechanical Relay (1950)

Transistors

TX-0 Computer (1953)

NCR 304 - First All Solid State Business Computer (1957)

 

 

Microprocessor Technology

 

Silicon

Intel 80386 Microprocessor Chip (1986)

Mainframe Microprocessor Chip & Pentium Chip

Microprocessor Chip (Z80A) in Osborne PC

 

 

Early Minicomputers

 

DEC PDP-1 Minicomputer (1960)

DEC PDP 8 (1964)

DEC PDP 12 (1969)

DEC PDP 8 Computer

IBM System/3 Minicomputer (1970)

Wang VS 100 Minicomputer (circa 1980)

 

 

SuperComputers

 

CDC-6600 Computer Console (1964)

Cray-1 SuperComputer (1976)

ASCI Option Red Supercomputer (1998)

 

 

Tapes, Disks, Storage Devices, CRTs

 

UNIVAC Digital Recording Tape (1950's)

UNIVAC -1 Tape Units (1951)

Uniservo Tape Device (1950s)

Tape Drive Unit - Midwestern Digital Model M4000 (1967)

Tape Drive Unit - Potter SC-1080 (1967)

8 Inch Floppy Disk

Osborne Portable Computer - Floppy Disk Drives (1981)

Osborne I Cathode Ray Tube assembly "CRT" (1981)

Disk Pack Storage Media (1988)

Disk Storage Media Compared

Tandy Computer Cassette Program

Hitachi External CD ROM Drive (1991)

Floppy Diskette Brands

 

 

 

 Handheld Electronic Calculators

 

HEWLETT-PACKARD 35 - First Scientific Handheld Calculator (1972)

Handheld calculator sizes: Then-and-now, comparison

HEWLETT-PACKARD 32E Handheld Calculator (1978)

Busicom Calculator (1972)

HEWLETT-PACKARD 35 - First Scientific Handheld Calculator (1972)

Litronix handheld calculator (1973)

National Semiconductor handheld calculator 600 (1973)

Commodore 885D handheld calculator

Commodore 996R handheld calculator

Edmund Scientific handheld calculator

Commodore CG986R handheld calculator

Teal 817 handheld calculator

Sperry Remington 665 Handheld Calculator (1972)

Montgomery Ward P10 handheld calculator (1974)

TI 1200 handheld calculator (1975)

Rockwell 10R handheld calculator

Rockwell 24K pocket calculator

Novus 850 Calculator (1970s)

Radio Shack EC 226 handheld calculator

Sperry Remington SSR8 (1975)

Facit Handheld Printing Calculator (circa 1980)

Albinar handheld calculator (1980)

SC44 handheld calculator

Mickey Mouse calculator (1980s)

Actronics Coin Bank Calculator (1980s)

APFmark84 handheld calculator

Sears SLC89 handheld calculator

Little Professor handheld calculator (1981)

More Handheld Calculator Models

Star Trek Communicator Calculator

 

 

Computer Toys, Learning Aids, etc.

 

Geniac Computer Kit (1955)

Digicomp Computer Kit (1963)

Pong Game Unit

Playskool Computer Toy (1972)

Mattel Computer Gin Game (1979)

Merlin Computer Game (1978)

Mattel Discovery System computer toy (1980)

Alphie II (Learning Toy) (1980's)

Space Invader (1981)

Little Professor handheld calculator (1981)

Donkey Kong Game Unit (1982)

Actronics Coin Bank Calculator (1980s)

Tommy Tutor toy computer (1980)

Learning Window computer toy (1985)

Talkatron (Learning Computer) (1985)

Pac-Man Staying Power

 

Core Memory

Core Memory (UNIVAC) (1950's)

Core Memory (UNIVAC III)

Core Memory: 1960's

Core Memory CDC 6600 (1964)

Core Memory: Data General Nova (1972)

 

Unisys - Burroughs - Sperry - Remington

UNISYS - Article on the Pre-History of UNISYS

UNISYS - History (in Glossary)

Remington Rand's First Computer

Sperry Gyroscope Company, Sperry Rand, Product Examples

UNIVAC Systems Chronology

UNIVAC FAQ Sheet

 

Copyright © 1982-2002, Lexikon Services "History of Computing" ISBN 0-944601-78-2