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Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973)(photo)
Howard Aiken received his B.A. degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1923, and completed his Ph.D. at Harvard in 1939. His doctoral thesis was on the subject of space charge conduction. His work on space charge conduction required a significant amount of work calculating nonlinear differential equations. Dr. Aiken often gave thought to how these calculations might be done more efficiently by a machine. In 1937, he wrote a paper entitled "Proposed Automatic Calculating Machines."
He presented his ideas to Harvard business professor Ted Brown and Harvard astronomy professor Harlow Shapley. They saw potential in his ideas and referred Aiken to Thomas J. Watson, Sr. of IBM. In 1939, a contract was signed to have IBM build a large scale calculating device called the "Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator" (ASCC). The ASCC, also known as the Harvard Mark I, was completed in 1944. A good description of the ASCC can be found in a paper authored by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper, appearing in volume 46 of the Electrical Engineering publication (1946).
Aiken was the founder of the Harvard Computational Laboratory and was also involved in the creation of other machines, including the Mark II relay machine (1946), the Mark III electronic computer (1950), and the Mark IV electronic computer (1952). Aiken is known for his strong interest in the computing field and his energy in forwarding computing ideas. He established a symposium on large-scale digital devices at Harvard University as early as 1947 and provided guidance for others who pursued research and doctoral dissertations in related areas. Aiken's work is described in the "Annals of the Harvard Computation Laboratory." In 1961, Aiken retired from Harvard and moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida and formed Aiken Industries. He also joined the faculty of the University of Miami and helped institute their computer science program.
Paul Allen (1953- )
Paul Allen is a brilliant engineer, programmer, businessman and long time friend of Bill Gates. Paul Allen and Gates wrote an early version of the programming language BASIC for the Altair microcomputer. Gates and Allen later started a company called "Micro Soft" which later became Microsoft Corporation. Paul Allen left Microsoft in 1985 and has since been involved in a number of ventures, including Starware Corporation, Asymetrix, and the Paul Allen Group.
Gene Amdahl (1922- 1996)
Dr. Gene Amdahl was born in South Dakota and grew up on a farm. He attended South Dakota University where he obtained his B.A. degree and later obtained a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin.
Amdahl was a brilliant computer scientist.. He was an employee at IBM from 1952 to 1970, at which time he left IBM to found his own company Amdahl Corporation and proceeded to make IBM mainframe compatible computers which were smaller, faster and cheaper than IBM's own machines.
Amdahl Corporation had achieved $321 million in sales by 1979. Amdahl left the company to pursue other directions, and founded Trilogy Corporation.
Marc Andreessen (1971- )
Marc Andreessen was the primary developer of the Mosaic Internet Web browser software created at the University of Illinois-Champaign's National Center for Supercomputer Applications. In 1994, Andreessen joined James Clark, who had founded Silicon Graphics, in the creation of a new company "Mosaic Communications." Mosaic Communications later changed its name to Netscape Communications Corporation, and its Netscape Navigator web browser software became an industry leader. As of January 1996, Netscape Navigator is the world's most popular Internet Web Browser. One of its chief competitors is Microsoft's Internet Explorer (IE).
John Vincent Atanasoff (1903-1995)(photo)
John V. Atanasoff received his Masters Degree from Iowa State College (now Iowa State University) in 1926, and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1930. He served as an instructor at Iowa State College (1926-1929), as an instructor at University of Wisconsin (1929-1930), and became an associate professor at Iowa State in 1930. Atanasoff developed the first logic circuit with vacuum tubes.
In 1939, he worked with Clifford Berry, a graduate student, on an electronic digital computer, he later called the "Atanasoff-Berry Computer" (ABC), at Iowa State University. The ABC was the first electronic digital computer. It used vacuum tubes and capacitors arranged on a drum, and utilized punched cards. The ABC was completed in 1942, which was several years before the more famous early digital computer, the ENIAC, was completed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. (Almost a year earlier, however, Dr. Konrad Zuse of Germany, developed the Z-3, the first digital, general purpose computer which used relays, rather than vacuum tubes.)
From 1942 to 1949, John Atanasoff was Chief of Acoustics Division, U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory ("NOL") in Washington, D.C. From 1949 to 1950 he served as Chief Scientist at the Army Field Forces, Fort Monroe, Virginia. From 1950-1951 he was Director of the Navy Fuze Program at the NOL. From 1952 to 1956 he served as president of the Ordnance Engineering Corporation, Frederick, Maryland. From 1956 to 1961 he was Vice President of Aerojet General Corporation and Manager of the Atlantic Division. In 1961 he became president of Cybernetics, Inc., in Frederick, Maryland.
In a law suit which followed years later, between Honeywell and Sperry, Atanasoff was acknowledged as the inventor of the electronic digital computer, even though he never successfully obtained a patent on it.
Charles Babbage (1791-1871)(photo)
Charles Babbage was born in London, England. He entered Cambridge University in 1810, and was recognized for his exceptional mathematical abilities. In 1828, he was appointed Lucasian Professor at the university, a position which Sir Isaac Newton once held. In around 1833, Babbage developed the "Difference Engine" concept but lacked the funding and support to build the device. Babbage worked on the concepts for an "Analytical Engine," which were described in writings by Lady Augusta Ada, Countess of Lovelace, daughter of Lord Byron, in 1842. Babbage discussed the concept of using punched cards to control the operation of his calculating machine, but he was never able to build a full working model. General L. F. Menebrea wrote about Charles Baggage's machine designs in 1841.
John Backus (1924- )
John W. Backus received his Masters Degree in Mathematics from Columbia University and went to work for IBM as a programmer for the IBM SSEC (Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator). Mr. Backus later headed the development of the Speedcoding interpretive system for the IBM 701 and participated in the design of the IBM 704.
From 1954 to 1958 he and another programmer, Irving Ziller, led the programming research group at IBM during its development of FORTRAN. He also worked on the programming language ALGOL while at IBM.
In 1959, Backus defined rules for analyzing high-level languages. These rules were called the Backus Normal Form (BNF), and were later revised to be called "Backus Naur Form" in recognition of the early work done by Danish astronomer Peter Naur.
Backus was appointed an IBM Fellow in 1963. He received the W. W. McDowell Award of the IEEE in 1967, the National Medal of Science in 1975, and the ACM's Turing Award in 1977. Mr. Backus is a member of the National Academies of Science and Engineering.
Edmund C. Berkeley (1909-1988)
Edmund C. Berkeley earned his bachelors degree in mathematics and logic at Harvard University (1930). He worked for Mutual Life Insurance Company and later for Prudential Insurance Company up until about 1942, where he worked with punched card tabulators. Edmund Berkeley was part of the Harvard Mark II development team and also founded the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) in 1947.
In 1948, Edmund C. Berkeley organized Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., New York. Berkeley Enterprises started as a consulting firm and later sold construction kits for building robots and computing devices as well as publications on logic and cybernetics.
In 1951, he began publishing "Computers and Automation," one of the earliest regular computer publications.
Edmund C. Berkeley's many publications include:
"Giant Brains or Machines that Think" (John Wiley & Sons, 1949)
"Automatic Computing Machinery" (1956)
"Brainiacs: 201 Small Electric Brain Machines and How to Make Them" (1959)
"Brainiacs" lists the 1959 address for Berkeley Enterprises as 815 Washington Street, Newtonville, Massachusetts.
Frank Stephen Baldwin (1838-1925)
Frank Baldwin patented a mechanical calculator in 1873 and a reliable, variable-toothed mechanical gear. (See Baldwin Calculator) He joined up with Jay Randolph Monroe to produce business calculating machines. By 1911, the Monroe Calculators were being produced and soon became very successful..
John Bardeen (1908-1991)
John Bardeen was co-inventor of the transistor with Walter Brattain and William Shockley, at AT&T Bell Labs. They made their key discoveries in 1947. All three received the 1956 Nobel Peace Prize in Physics.
William S. Burroughs (1857-1898)(photo)
William S. Burroughs was born in Rochester, New York in 1857. While working as a bank clerk he realized the need for more efficient ways to perform accounting and calculating tasks. He invented and patented several devices and by 1888 had developed a workable adding machine.
George Boole (1815-1864)
In the 1840's, George Boole, an Irish mathematician, developed a revolutionary type of Algebra based on the numbers one and zero. This system is now referred to as Boolean Algebra. This was later found to be a very useful way of representing information in computers. He published several important works, including "The Mathematical Analysis of Logic," "Differential Equations and Finite Differences," and "An Investigation of the Laws of Thought."
Boole's ideas were of significance in the area of engineering design and the development of electrical logic circuits.
Vannevar Bush (1890-1974)(photo)
Dr. Vannevar Bush was born in Everett, Massachusetts. He graduated from Tufts College in 1913. He taught mathematics and electrical engineering at Tufts from 1914 to 1917. He joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1919, served as dean of engineering and vice president from 1932 to 1938. Dr. Bush was a brilliant electrical engineer and obtained about 50 patents. His inventions included the Differential Analyzer, the Integraph, and improvements to vacuum tubes and other technical achievements.
The Differential Analyzer was an analog device that was reported to be the most accurate calculating device of its time. During World War II, Bush guided much of the U.S. Weapons research. He chaired the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), headed the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) from 1941 to 1946. Bush also established the National Research Foundation (NRF) and served as president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
Dr. Vannevar Bush
DATE - TECHNICAL RESEARCH AND ACHIEVEMENTS
1915-1916 - Bush completes his doctoral program in one year.
1917 - Oscillating current circuits; coupled circuits
1919 - Gimbal stabilization in gyroscopes
1920 - Development of a harmonic analyzer
1921 - Rectifiers
1922 - Co-authored "Principles of Electrical Engineering" with William Timbie
1923 - Transmission line transients
1924 - Operational analysis
1925 - Power systems
1925-1926 - Invention of the Integraph, for solving of differential equations with constant or time-varying coefficients; transmission line problems and other calculations. Dr. Bush worked with Herbert R. Stewart and an assistant named Gage.
1927 - Publication on methods of machine computation
1929 - Published a textbook on operational calculus
1931 - The Differential Analyzer is built by Bush and Harol Hazen.
1941 - The Rockefeller Differential Analyzer (RDA) is built, using 2,000 electronic tubes, 150 motors, and several thousand relays.
1937-1945 - Published writings on the engineer and his relation to government; the engineering spirit; the basis of biological engineering; research and the war effort; and postwar scientific research.
1955 - Dr. Bush retired from his position at the Carnegie Institution and served on the boards of several corporations
Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace
Augusta Ada was the daughter of the poet, Lord Byron. She was a bright mathematician who was introduced to Charles Babbage in 1833. Ada Byron was fascinated by a demonstration of Babbage's Difference Engine which Babbage had arranged. Babbage found that Ada understood and could explain the workings of his machine better than anyone else. Babbage later toured Europe giving lectures on his more advanced concept, the Analytical Engine, a machine which he never fully constructed. Extensive notes were taken of some of these lectures in French. Ada translated the French notes into English and added a lengthy addendum.
At Babbage's request, she published her notes. She had a unique grasp of the concepts of programming subroutines, loops and jumps. She is often referred to as the first programmer. She was instrumental in clarifying and preserving information on Charles Babbage and his work. When Augusta was 19, she married the wealthy Lord King, Baron of Lovelace. Her husband had some knowledge of mathematics, but it was Ada who urged him to provide funding to Babbage when his government funding ceased. Ada also had an interest in gambling, and attempted to apply some of Babbage's technology to that end, but without great success.
In recognition of her contributions to the field of programming theory, the U.S. Department of Defense named their programming language for reducing software development and maintenance costs "ADA" in her honor in the mid 1970's.
Steve Case is the chairman and chief executive officer of the on-line service America Online ("AOL"). America Online is the largest on-line service with over 9 million members (2000).
Vinton ("Vint") Cerf was one of the authors of the Internet TCP/IP communications protocol. Mr. Cerf is sometimes referred to as "the father of TCP/IP." Mr. Cerf is senior vice president of data services architecture at MCI Communications Corporation (1996).
James Clark, a former Stanford University professor, founded Silicon Graphics in 1982, which rapidly grew into a multi-million dollar industry leader in high tech graphics and 3 D workstations. Silicon Graphics went public in 1986 and by 1993 it was a billion dollar company.
James Clark left the company in 1994 and founded a new company called Netscape Communications Corporation, makers of the Netscape Internet web browser software. Netscape went public on August 9, 1995, and made impressive gains in stock value. Netscape holds a majority of the market for Internet web browser technology (1996).
Wes Clark designed the LINK computer at Lincoln Labs in the 1960's.
While working at IBM in 1970, E. F. Codd wrote a very important paper entitled "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks." This paper first described the theory of relational databases. IBM soon began development of a prototype relational database system called System R. System R included a query language which later evolved into SQL ("Structured Query Language"). In 1981, IBM released SQL/DS for its DOS/VSE operating system, and then for VM/CMS. In 1983, IBM released DB2 for DOS/VSE and soon thereafter for its MVS/XA machines. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) adopted a standard SQL language in 1986 as X3.135-1966. It was later adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO) as IS-9075-1987.
Edson de Castro founded Data General Corporation.
Seymour Cray (1925-1996)
Semour Cray was born in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. He graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1951 with a bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering and a masters degree in applied mathematics. In 1951 he went to work for Engineering Research Associates (ERA). He helped design the ERA 1103 computer and the Bogart, one of the first computers to use transistorized logic and magnetic cores. Cray helped found Control Data Corporation (CDC) in 1957. Cray was the chief designer for the CDC 1604 computer, and later designed the CDC 6600 and CDC 7600. Cray's goal was to build the world's fastest computer. In 1972, Cray left CDC and formed Cray Research, Inc., dedicated to research and design of supercomputers.
In 1976, Cray Research produced its first CRAY-1 supercomputer. The CRAY-1 was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratories. The CRAY-1 went through several improvements and became very successful. It was followed by the CRAY-2, CRAY X-MP, CRAY Y-MP. (See Cray Research, Inc.)
Semour Cray was an extremely brilliant computer designer and his name has become synonymous with supercomputing technologies.
Founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Dell Computer Corporation. Michael Dell got his hands on his first computer when he was in his seventh grade advanced math class. He was involved, and successful with, various marketing and sales concepts since the age of 12. Dell saw that the demand for personal computers was higher than some businesses could handle. He began buying PCs wholesale, adding components, and reselling them. He enrolled at the University of Texas at Austin in 1983.
By the end of his freshman year, he was making $50,000 per month selling personal computers to local businesses and others. On May 3, 1984, he formed Dell Computer Corporation. In the first month of operation, sales amounted to $180,000. Dell began selling its own brand name, "PC Limited" which it registered in Texas in February 1984. By October 1991, Dell Computer Corporation was listed in Fortune Magazine as one of America's 100 fastest growing companies. Michael Dell was the youngest CEO of a company to ever earn a ranking on the Fortune 500.
Edsger W. Dijkstra joined the Mathematical Center in Amsterdam in March 1952. Dijkstra had been a graduate of the Gymnasium Erasmianum, and was trained in five foreign languages. He later credited some of his ability in programming to his having been trained in languages at school. Dijkstra became highly interested and involved in the programming efforts on some of the early computers and made major contributions to the field of computer programming.
He was involved with programming done on the ARRA II machine, which was constructed during 1953 and was operational until mid 1956. He drafted a report on the machine in 1953 (Report MR12) which described what the machine could do. He was also involved in developing the programming for several other early computers including the FERTA (which was completed around December 1954), the ARMAC (which was completed around June 1956), the EL-X1 (completed in 1957) and wrote a compiler for the ALGOL 60 programming language.
Raymond Dolby is probably best known for his development of the Dolby sound systems. Raymond Dolby was born in Portland, Oregon, in 1937. While attending Stanford University, he went to work for Alexander M. Poniatoff, founder of Ampex, and Charlie Ginsburg, a highly talented engineer. Poniatoff and Ginsburg had been working on the technology for video tape recorders (VTR) since 1952. Dolby joined in this effort. Originally called TVR for "Television Tape Recorder," the technology was introduced to the broadcast industry in 1956. Dolby was responsible for several key components of the VTR technology, which has now evolved into the VCR technology. Dolby received his Ph.D. from Cambridge University.
In May of 1965, he founded Dolby Laboratories, a pioneering company in the field of noise reduction technology. Dolby also introduced a revolutionary noise reduction system which was used in improving the sound quality in compact cassette tapes, and has been used widely in the cinema and related industries. Dolby's noise reduction system has been produced in several different types: Dolby B, Dolby C, Dolby S, and Dolby Special Recording (Dolby SR). In 1992, Dolby introduced Dolby Digital. J. Presper Eckert (1919-1995)(photo)
J. Presper Eckert was born in Philadelphia. In 1941, he received his bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Engineering. Eckert is a brilliant pioneer in the computer field, having been co-inventor of the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) with John Mauchly. He is the inventor or co-inventor on over 85 patents. Eckert and Mauchly started their own computer company which was the first computer company in the United States. He was also co-developer of the EDSAC and BINAC computers.
Their work on a marketable computer, along with Remington Rand, resulted in the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) which became a household name in the business computing field.
J. PRESPER ECKERT
A Brief Chronology of Events
DATE - TECHNICAL BACKGROUND AND ACHIEVEMENTS
1941 - Received bachelor's degree from Univ. of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering
1943 - Received his masters degree under a fellowship at the Moore School
1943- 1946 - Designed and developed the ENIAC with John Mauchly. (See ENIAC.)
1946 - With John Mauchly and John Von Neumann, Eckertbegins the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) project.
1947 - Founded the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation.
1948 - Developed the BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer).
1949 - Began development of the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer).
1950 - After Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company was acquired by Remington Rand, Eckert became the director of Engineering for the Eckert-Mauchly Division. The UNIVAC I was completed and became the first commercially available computer. The Eckert-Mauchly Division of Remington became the UNIVAC Division.
1954 - Eckert and Earl Masterson develop the UNIPRINTER, the first commercially available high speed printer.
1955 - Eckert became vice-president and director of research.
1957 - Eckert became vice-president and director of commercial engineering.
1959 - Eckert became vice-president and assistant to general manager.
1963 - Eckert became vice-president and technical advisor to the president of Sperry Rand, UNIVAC Division.
1964 - Received an honorary Ph.D. from University of Pennsylvania.
1965 - Both Eckert and Mauchly receive the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Philadelphia Section Award for fundamental concepts and contributions to electronic computers and for the construction of the first all-electronic computer.
1969 - Eckert was awarded the National Medal of Science.
1973 - Jointly with John Mauchly, Eckert receives the Philadelphia Man of the Year Award.
Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)
Thomas Edison was one of the greatest and most well-known inventors in U.S. history. He was born in Milan, Ohio and received only a few months of formal schooling. His mother educated him at home, where he set up a laboratory in the basement to satisfy his curiosity with chemistry and other interests.
As a young man, Edison's deafness in one ear kept him from military service during the Civil War. Instead, he became a telegrapher, one of the fastest of his time. In 1875, Edison tackled the problem of multiple telegraphy, sending multiple signals over a single set of wires. He successfully developed a method allowing six messages to be sent. This technology was used by Western Union which increased its net worth by $15 million. Edison also invented the phonograph in 1877 and the carbon-filament incandescent lamp in 1879. Edison's patent on the phonograph technology was bought by Victor Company, which later became part of the Radio Corporation of America ("RCA"). While experimenting with the carbon lamp, he discovered a phenomena of carbon deposits on the inside of the bulbs. This came to be known as the "Edison Effect" and was a discovery to have later importance in the field of vacuum tube electronics for radio, television and early computers. During his lifetime, Edison was awarded a total of 1,093 patents by the U.S. Patent Office. More than any other person has ever achieved. (Reference: "Those Inventive Americans," National Geographic Society, 1971)
Lawrence J. Ellison, co-founder of Oracle Corporation in 1977, became its president and chief executive officer. Ellison was formerly vice president of systems development at Omex Corporation, a pioneer in optical digital mass storage. Ellison had also worked for Ampex Corporation on adapting video recording technology for computer mass storage, and at Amdahl Corporation, where he worked on one of the first IBM compatible mainframes.
Oracle is a leading producer of database software for multiple platforms. Ellison was listed in the "Forbes 400" magazine (1994). His stock value was estimated at $2.9 billion.
Dr. Engelbart has been a pioneer in computer-human interaction since the 1950's. He holds a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering with a specialization in computers, from the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Engelbart has authored or co-authored over 33 articles, and holds 20 different patents. He holds numerous awards from such groups as the IEEE, ACM and others. For over 33 years, Dr. Engelbart has been involved in visionary and pioneering work in organizational augmentation, including strategies for continuous improvement, human-tool co-evolution, and interactive hypermedia computing to support the knowledge-intensive work of groups and individuals. His pioneering work from 1959 to 1977 is particularly noteworthy. During that period he was director of the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at Stanford Research Institute (now "SRI International"), that many major technical discoveries and innovations were developed and implemented. Some of those achievements are presented in the following list: See also
TECHNICAL ACHIEVEMENTS AND INNOVATIONS
AT THE AUGMENTATION RESEARCH LABORATORY
- Invention of the Mouse
- First Major Implementation of Electronic Mail
- Invention of Multiple Windows on Computer Display
- First Major Implementation of Word Processing
- First Implementation of Integrated, On-Line Help Systems
- Invention of Outlining Software and Idea Processors
- Implementation of Computer Supported Group Conferences
- Integration of Text and Graphics Processing
- First Implementation of Hypertext Links and Notes
- Invention of Shared Screen Teleconferencing
- Invention of New Computer-interactive Input Devices
- Invention of Remote Procedure Call Protocol Integration
Dr. Engelbart was a radar technician in the U.S. Navy during World War II. After the war, he took a position with a contractor for the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, which was the precursor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He left this position in 1951 and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he pursued his Ph.D. in electrical engineering. In 1957, Engelbart joined the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). He persuaded the SRI to establish the Augmentation Research Center (ARC), at Menlo Park, California, with grant funds from the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
In 1963, he published his paper entitled "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." Engelbart envisioned the computer as a means to improve man's ability to operate and communicate. With his knowledge of RADAR displays, he felt that a computer could be designed to interact with humans through the use of visual displays, including three- dimensional color symbols. In 1968, Engelbart was invited to demonstrate the results of some of his research at a computer conference in San Francisco.
At the conference, Engelbart demonstrated the use of a pointing device called a "mouse" which he had invented four years earlier. Engelbart and the Augmentation Research Center developed the "NLS" (oNLine System) which integrated many of the firsts, including windows, the mouse, hypermedia, groupware and others. Engelbart's demonstration included displaying various documents on a 20 foot screen that were being generated by his computer at the ARC laboratory over 40 miles away. He controlled the operation of the computer via a control panel and microwave link. This was the first demonstration of the mouse being used as an interactive tool with the computer. Dr. Engelbart's work was impacted in 1975 when the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) cut project funding as part of defense cut backs. The Augmentation Research Center lost many of its staff positions. Some of the former ARC staff joined the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) set up by Xerox in 1970, and continued with some of the concepts dealing with human-computer interaction during the 1970's. Dr. Engelbart left the ARC in 1977, and joined Tymeshare, Inc. as a senior scientist, and continued work on the NLS, which Tymeshare acquired. In 1984, Tymeshare was acquired by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC). Engelbart continued with MDC, and was involved closely with the aerospace components of MDC on issues of integrated information-system architectures and associated evolutionary strategies, which was an extension of the earlier work at SRI.
From 1989 to 1990, Dr. Engelbart worked at Stanford University on the Bootstrap Initiative for cooperative advanced research in Collaborative Knowledge Development. Dr. Engelbart is currently the Director of the Bootstrap Institute in Fremont, California. Through consulting, seminars, publications and joint exploration, the Bootstrap Institute offers a comprehensive strategy for creating high-performance organizations, increasing their capabilities in knowledge work and information handling.
Sherman Mills Fairchild (1897-1971)
In 1919, Sherman Mills Fairchild invented a fast, efficient between-the-lens shutter and timing mechanism for handling roll film. This technique made accurate aerial photography possible for the first time. Since aircraft of the day were not sophisticated enough to use the full capabilities of his new aerial camera, Fairchild designed his own airplane. Fairchild developed the closed-cabin airplane, the folding-wing airplane, and hydraulically operated aircraft brakes and landing gear. He founded Fairchild Aerial Camera Company and Fairchild Aviation in 1920.
In 1927, he formed Fairchild Aviation Corporation which was renamed Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation in 1944. In 1957, Fairchild sponsored the creation of a new company centered around a technological breakthrough in the field of mass production of silicon transistors. A group of scientists invented a method of producing silicon transistors in large quantities, employing a double diffusion technique and a chemical etching system called the "mesa" process.
With financial backing from Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation based in New York, the new California-based Fairchild Semiconductor Company was formed. Fairchild Semiconductor was profitable in less than six months and became a leader in the semiconductor field. Fairchild was eventually purchased by National Semiconductor Corporation.
Sherman Fairchild remained chairman of the board of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation until his death in 1971, at age 74. Some of his inventions in the area of aerial technology are on display at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C.
Extracted with permission from "Fairchild: The 50th Year Photo Album" and "Facts about Fairchild" Information courtesy of National Semiconductor Corporation, Copyright (C) 1994 National Semiconductor Corporation
Dorr Eugene Felt (1862-1930)
In 1885, Dorr Eugene Felt, a mechanic with the Pullman Company of Chicago, produced the first practical adding machine, the "Comptometer." In 1889, he added a printing mechanism to further refine his invention. Felt entered into a partnership with Robert Tarrant and started the Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company.
A variety of improvements were made over the years, and the Comptometer became a very popular adding machine during the 1890 to 1935 period. Many Comptometers from the turn of the century still survive in working order. The Comptometer suffered from increasing competition from other adding machines being produced by Burroughs and Monroe. Once a household name, the Comptometer label has faded from use.
Bill Gates was born on October 28, 1955 in Seattle, Washington. Very gifted in mathematics at an early age, he became interested in computer programming and took classes in 1969. He was writing programs and getting paid for it by the following year. Bill Gates, and his friend Paul Allen, developed BASIC for the Altair microcomputer from MITS, in around 1975. In May of 1975, they formed "Micro-Soft" (later "Microsoft") to develop computer software. In 1981, Microsoft's "Disk Operating System" (MS-DOS) became the standard for IBM's new personal computer. Microsoft's success with DOS and other programs, propelled it into a multi-billion dollar corporation. Microsoft went public in 1986. As of January 1997, Bill Gates' net worth (mostly Microsoft stock) is estimated at $23.9 billion, making him the richest man in the world. His net worth varies daily with the stock market.
He married Melinda French, a Microsoft executive, on New Year's day, 1994.
With over 60 million users of its products, Microsoft continues to expand its user base.
See also: Bibliography
Jack Gilmore, an aeronautical engineer at MIT, wrote the first assembler program for the Whirlwind in 1951. He also wrote a series of utility programs for the TX-O computer, including a program called FIND, which would search other programs for key words. Gilmore also wrote an interactive utility for the TX-O called PUNCHY, which allowed programmers to punch out corrected paper tape for storage purposes.
In 1957, he wrote an experimental program called Scope Writer which utilized a light pen to mark dots on a computer's oscilloscope screen. This was later adapted for use on the TX-2 computer, in a device called the Lincoln Writer, which could handle mathematical and Greek symbols.
Lt. Herman Goldstine was a mathematics professor, was stationed at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in 1942. Goldstine was involved in the development of the ENIAC which came on line in 1945. From 1946 to 1947, he was a member of the Institute of Advanced Study (IAS), where he worked with John Von Neumann on the IAS computer. In 1958, Goldstine joined IBM as director of scientific development, and became an IBM Fellow in 1969. Goldstine is also the author of the excellent book "The Computer From Pascal to von Neumann," published by Princeton University Press, 1972. Goldstine has received numerous awards, including the IEEE Computer Society Pioneer Award (1980), and the National Medal of Science (1985).
Ralph Griswold received his Masters (1960) and Ph.D. (1962) in Electrical Engineering from Stanford. He served as a member of the technical staff of Bell Telephone Laboratories in the Programming Research Studies Department where he worked on developing programs for the manipulation of symbolic expressions. Along with Ivan Polonsky and Dave Farber, he developed the SNOBOL programming language in 1963, later followed by SNOBOL2, SNOBOL3 and SNOBOL4.
In 1967, he was appointed supervisor of Bell Labs' Computer Languages Research Group. In 1969, he was appointed head of the Programming Research and Development Department. In 1971, Griswold left Bell Labs and took a position as head of the Computer Science Program at the University of Arizona. His field of interest and activity includes design of high-level facilities for the manipulation of nonnumeric data, programming methodology, measurement of high-level programming languages, program portability, and computer-based phototypesetting systems. Philipp Mathaus Hahn
Hahn was a mathematician and churchman. Around the mid 1700's, Hahn constructed a mechanical calculating machine similar in principle to the machine developed by Leibniz in 1673.
Edwin Harder was born in 1905 in Buffalo, New York. He graduated from Cornell with a degree in electrical engineering in 1926, and went to work for Westinghouse Corporation that same year. Harder, a brilliant engineer and mathematician, worked on a variety of different projects while at Westinghouse. Many of these projects involved calculations and the use of desktop digital calculators and special-purpose analog devices built at Westinghouse.
During his long and distinguished career at Westinghouse, he published over 100 technical papers and obtained over 60 patents. Harder worked on the AC Calculating Board developed by Westinghouse in 1929. The AC Calculating board was used by Westinghouse and marketed all over the world. It remained in use in some areas until the 1960's, when it was replaced by digital computers.
In about 1946, Harder took over a project to build a large analog computer, the ANACOM. The ANACOM was designed to perform a variety of calculations relating to measuring transients in electrical and mechanical systems. Over time, the uses of the ANACOM increased until it became the most important calculating device at Westinghouse. The ANACOM filled a room about 40 feet long and cost about $500,000 to construct. Its construction included forcing functions such as 60-hertz and 400-hertz power supplies, an audio oscillator, a synchronous switch, low-loss capacitors, resistors, hi-Q inductor, transformers. Its measuring equipment included voltmeters, wattmeters, ammeters, harmonic analyzers, and photographically recorded cathode-ray oscillographs. Mechanical switches were used up until 1953, when vacuum tube-based switches were substituted.
The ANACOM, which had undergone numerous refinements over the years, remained in operation until 1991. Mr. Harder left the Analytical Department at Westinghouse in 1965, but stayed on in a consulting capacity till about 1970.
He has also held a number of positions in professional organizations, and a member of the board of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), is a member of the National Academy of Engineers, President of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies and U.S. Representative to the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP).
William R. Hewlett, a brilliant entrepreneur and businessman, was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He received his bachelor's degree from Stanford University in 1934, his masters in electrical engineering from MIT in 1936 and an engineering degree from Stanford in 1939.
Hewlett met David Packard during their undergraduate days at Stanford. The two engineering classmates became friends and formed a partnership known as Hewlett-Packard Company in 1939. HP's first product was a resistance-capacitance audio oscillator based on a design developed by Hewlett when he was in graduate school. The company's first "plant" was a small garage in Palo Alto, and the initial capital amounted to $538. Walt Disney purchased 8 of the original oscillators for the movie "Fantasia."
During the course of his career, William Hewlett contributed to the advancement of various organizations within the electronics industry. From 1950 to 1957 he was on the board of directors of the Institute of Radio Engineers (now the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)), and later served as president. He also played an important role in the development of the former American Electronics Association. In 1985, former President Reagan awarded him the National Medal of Science, the nation's highest scientific honor. Hewlett has been awarded 11 different honorary degrees from various colleges and universities. He is an honorary trustee of the California Academy of Sciences, a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Bill Hewlett has donated over $75 million to Stanford since 1986. His personal stock in Hewlett-Packard is estimated at $1.75 billion in value (1993).
WILLIAM HEWLETT & HEWLETT-PACKARD A Brief Chronology of Events
1939-1947 - Co-founder and Partner of Hewlett-Packard
1947-1957 - Vice President and Director
1957-1964 - Executive Vice President and Director
1964-1969 - President and Director
1969-1977 - President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
1977-1978 - Chairman of Executive Committee, CEO and Director
1978-1983 - Chairman of Executive Committee and Director
1983-1987 - Vice Chairman, Board of Directors
1987 - Director Emeritus, Board of Director (References: Hewlett-Packard Company; "Forbes 400" magazine 1994 edition.)
Dr. Marcian E. Hoff (Ted Hoff)
Ted (Marcian E.) Hoff was born in Rochester, New York, on October 28, 1937. He received his B.S. degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York in 1958. In 1959 he received his masters degree in electrical engineering from Stanford University, and received his Ph.D. there in 1962. Ted Hoff, a brilliant engineer and microprocessor pioneer, is probably best known for his work on the development of microprocessors.
In 1969, Busicom, the calculator company, asked Intel to build a series of 12 chips for their planned calculator. Ted Hoff was assigned the project. In about 1970, along with Frederico Faggin and Stanley Mazor, Ted Hoff created the first commercial microprocessor chip, the Intel 4004. The 4004 microprocessor was made part of a microcomputer called the MCS-4 (Microcomputer System 4).
Ted Hoff published an article on this new technology in March 1970, at the proceedings of the IEEE International Convention. The 4004 was a 4-bit, 2,300 transistor chip which Intel began advertising and shipping in 1971. In 1980, Dr. Hoff also completed work on the "codec" a single-chip analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog coder/decoder. In addition to his work at Intel for over 14 years, Hoff also worked briefly at Atari Corporation and later as a consultant for Teklicon, Inc. Dr. Hoff holds an IEEE Fellowship, the IEEE Centennial Medal, and has received the Stuart Ballantine Medal of the Franklin Institute and the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award.
The actual patent for the microprocessor went to Gilbert Hyatt, who filed for it in 1970, and was awarded the patent in 1990 after years of legal actions.
Herman Hollerith (1860-1929)(photo)
Hollerith, son of a German immigrant, became an American inventor and a brilliant engineer. He graduated from Colombia College and joined the U.S. Census office in 1879 as a statistician. Hollerith began experimenting with ideas to make census taking less time consuming. Hollerith took a teaching job at MIT in 1882 which gave him more time for his experiments. In 1883, Hollerith was appointed assistant examiner in the U.S. Patent Office. He held this position until March 31, 1884. He built a battery-operated machine to tabulate death records for the government officials in Baltimore in 1887. His machine successfully completed in several days, what it normally took humans three weeks of work to accomplish. In 1889, he used another machine to tabulate statistics for the Surgeon General of the Army. He entered his punched-card tabulating machine in the competition for a contract with the U.S. Census Office for tabulating the 1890 census. Photo of 1890 Tabulator
Hollerith's machine finished in record time, far faster than his competitors. Hollerith's machine allowed the 1890 census to be completed in one-third the amount of time it had taken to completely tabulate the 1880 census. Hollerith continued to make improvements in his machines, selling them to businesses for data processing needs.
On December 3, 1886, Hollerith organized the Tabulating Machine Company (TMC) with an initial capitalization of $100,000, made up of 1,000 shares of common stock with a par value of $100. Hollerith became general manager and held 502 shares. In 1911, he sold his company. By then, hundreds of his machines had been installed by business. In 1894, Herman Hollerith patents a punched card system which utilized pneumatic pressure rather than electricity and air tubes rather than electrical wires. Although never built, it reflected his continued interest and development in the punched card systems and his application of knowledge from his railroad braking systems patents. The Tabulating Machine Company continued to grow and merged with other companies, and in 1924, formed the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM).
Hollerith achieved 38 patents during his lifetime, and achieved financial success, but he never invested any additional money in his grandchild, IBM.
Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1990)(photo)
Grace Hopper was born in New York and received her B.A. in Physics and Mathematics from Vassar College in 1928. She attended Yale University where she received her MA in 1930 and her Ph.D. in 1934. She achieved the grade of Navy Lieutenant, J.G. in 1944, and went to work on the Bureau of Ordnance's Computation Project at Harvard University. This project, headed by Howard Aiken, was developing the Harvard Mark I, also known as the IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. Grace Hopper functioned as the third member in a team of three programmers. In 1949, she joined the newly created Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. Eckert-Mauchly were developing the BINAC binary computer, which Grace Hopper programmed in octal. At this time, Grace Hopper became aware of John Mauchly's work on "Short Order Code." Mauchly developed "Short Order Code" for the BINAC in 1949, and it was later revised for use on the UNIVAC in 1952.
Ms. Hopper also developed A-O, the first compiler (1952); the A-2, the first compiler to handle symbolic manipulation (1953), and Flow-Matic (1957). Grace Hopper is known for her significant contribution to the field of computer languages. Her design of the language "Flow-Matic" was very influential in the later development of a common business oriented language (COBOL). COBOL is still in use today, and is probably the most widespread computer language of all time. Grace Hopper remained part of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company even after its acquisition by Remington Rand and later Sperry Rand. She retired from the UNIVAC Division of Sperry Rand in 1971. In 1971, she was appointed Professorial Lecturer in Management Science at the George Washington University, were she served until 1978.
From 1973, she also held the position of Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1966 she had retired from the U.S. Navy, but was recalled to active duty in 1967. In 1973, she was also promoted to the rank of Captain. In 1983, she was promoted again, this time to Commodore. In 1985, she became Rear Admiral and remained on active duty with the Naval Data Automation Command until 1986, when her name was returned to the retired list. During her long career, Grace Hopper published over 50 papers on computer software and programming languages and received over seventy- five different awards and honorary degrees. Among these are:
Fellow- - American Association for the Advancement of Science (1963)
Data Processing Management Association -"Man-of-the-Year" Award (1969)
American Federation of Information Processing Societies - Harry Goode Memorial Award (1970)
Distinguished Fellow - British Computer Society (1973)
U.S. Navy Meritorious Service Award (1980)
IEEE Computer Pioneer Award (1983)
Association of Computing Machinery -Distinguished Service Award (1983)
Lifetime Achievement Award - Federation of Govt. Information Processing Councils (1986)
Ken Iverson received his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from Harvard University in 1954. From 1955 to 1960 he served as Assistant Professor of Applied Mathematics. He then joined IBM as a Research Staff Member and later became an IBM Fellow (1971). He is noted for his work on defining APL (A Programming Language), which started in 1956. Additional later work was done on APL by A. D. Falkoff, E. E. McDonell and others. Ken Iverson received the AFIPT Harry Goode award in 1975 and the ACM's Turing Award in 1979.
Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752-1834)
Joseph Marie Jacquard was born in Lyon, France. Jacquard, the son of a weaver, entered a contest to develop a pattern loom. He won a prize for his first invention in 1801. He continued to improve on it for several years thereafter. Jacquard's technique was a punch-card device that used cards with punched holes to govern the pattern the machine weaved. His invention came to be known as the "Jacquard Loom."
Jacquard's technique of using punched cards for controlling a mechanical operation was borrowed by Charles Babbage in his design for an analytical engine (1833-34). Herman Hollerith later used the punched card concept in his tabulating machines (1890 census).
William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882)
In 1869, William Stanley Jevons, British economist and logician, publishes his papers entitled "The Substitution of Similars" and "On the Mechanical Performance of Logical Inference," which describe his "logical abacus" device. The logical abacus consisted of small rectangular wooden boards, each bearing a different combination of true and false terms. His logic machine, also called the "logical piano" was constructed in 1869 and demonstrated to the Royal Society of London. Jevon's machine used Boolean logic and he used it as a classroom tool to describe logical analysis. Jevon was highly influenced by the work of George Boole, and considered Boole's work to be a major scientific breakthrough in his time. Jevon's logic machine was the first of its time to utilize Boolean logic.
Co-founder of Apple Computer company and founder of NeXT Computers.
Steve Jobs was born in Los Altos, California.
Jobs graduates from Homestead High School in Los Altos, and briefly attended Reed College in Oregon. 1974 Steve worked for Atari, Inc. as a video game designer. He earned the money to go on a tour in India with a college friend. When Jobs returned from India, he joined up with his friend Steve Wozniak in California who was attending meetings of the "Homebrew Computer Club."
Steve Jobs (21) and Steve Wozniak (26) get together and build and market the Apple I computer. Wozniak and Jobs form the Apple Computer Company on April Fool's day. The Apple I debuts at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California. In May, Jobs sells his VW and Wozniak sells his Hewlett-Packard programmable calculator to raise $1,350 to finance production of the Apple I boards. Steve Jobs uses his parents' garage to build the first machines. The Apple I computer is announced at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California. In July, the Apple I computer board sells for $666.66.
By the end of 1976, ten retail stores were marketing the Apple I computers. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak attended the Atlantic City Computer Convention
In January 1977, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Armas C. "Mark" Markkula incorporate the "Apple Computer" company. Markkula was a former marketing manager at Intel and Fairchild Semiconductor, who added significant business expertise to the Jobs and Wozniak Team. Apple production moves from Steve Job's garage to a building in Stevens Creek Boulevard, Cupertino, California. Mike Scott becomes president of Apple. In April 1977, Rob Janoff, art director for Regis McKenna Advertising, designs the Apple Logo. That same month, the Apple II computer is unveiled at the West Coast Computer Fair. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak unveiled the Apple II computer. It came standard with 48k memory and sold for $1,298. The Apple II was the first personal computer to generate color graphics. The Apple II included a keyboard, power supply and attractive case.
The Apple II+ computer is announced, with 48K memory. 1980 Apple Computer goes public in December 1980. An initial offering of 4.6 million shares of Apple common stock sell for $22 per share. Every share is bought within minutes of offering, making it the largest public offering since Ford went public in Apple employees numbered over 1,000.
Apple Computer announced the Apple III computer in September.
Apple Computer had an installed base of 300,000 Apple II computers. Apple Computer has about 3,000 Apple dealers worldwide. Apple reorganizes. Mike Markkula replaces Mike Scott as president; Steve Jobs succeeds Markkula as chairman and Mike Scott becomes vice-president. By November 1981, Apple employees number 2,500 and the Apple II computer's installed base exceeds 300,000 units. 1982 (December) Apple Computer becomes the first personal computer company to reach $1 billion in annual sales. 1983 John Sculley joined Apple Computer in April 1983 as its 4,450th employee. Sculley was, at 44, one of the oldest employees at Apple, where the average age was 27. Sculley, formerly president of Pepsi-Cola, takes over the presidency of Apple. Apple Computer enters the Fortune 500 at number 411 in under five years. Apple II computers will be given to about 10,000 California schools by September this year. The Apple III+ computer is announced. The Apple IIe (priced at $1,395) and the Lisa (priced at $9,995) are introduced. The Lisa computer utilizes 32 bit architecture.
Apple announces the Macintosh. It comes standard with 128k memory and sells for $2,495. Apple Computer runs its controversial "1984, Big Brother" commercial during the Superbowl broadcast announcing the Apple Macintosh computer (January). Apple Computer wins copyright infringement suit against Franklin Computer, setting a precedent for PC software protection. (April) Apple Computer announces the Apple IIc (selling for $1,295) and discontinues the Apple III. By November, Apple has sold its two millionth Apple II.
In February, Jobs and Wozniak receive the National Technology Medal from President Ronald Reagan at the White House. In February, 1985, Steve Wozniak resigned from Apple Computer to start a new company to develop products in the home video area.
In September 1985, Steve Jobs leaves Apple.
Steve Jobs buys Pixar company from George Lucas for $10 million. Pixar is involved with technologies to generate film images by computer.
Jobs founds a new company, NeXT Computers.
After difficulties in marketing its NeXT computers, Jobs closes down the hardware manufacturing division and concentrates on software, focusing on NextStep software.
November 29, 1995, Pixar company makes its initial public offering (IPO) and opens at $22, rises to $49.
In December 1996, Steve Jobs sells NeXT to Apple Computer for $450 million. (Some information courtesy of Apple Computer.)
Laurel, Brenda;The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design;Apple Computer/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1990; Moritz, Michael;The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple Computer Paragon House, 1988; Sculley, John; Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple... The Journey of a Marketing Impresario; Harper & Row, 1987; Rose, Frank; West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer ;Viking Penguin, Inc., 1989; Willis; Miller, & Morrice; Things To Do With Your Apple Computer; Dilithium, 1983; Success Magazine August 1996
Fletcher Jones founded Computer Sciences Corporation with Roy Nutt in 1959.
In 1997, Gary Kasparov, world chess champion (since 1985), participated in a widely publicized match with a specially designed chess-playing computer made by IBM, called "Deep Blue." Kasparov lost the match to the computer. On Sunday, May 11, 1997, Kasparov resigned from the sixth and final game after just 19 moves. This was Kasparov's first loss in a multi-game match against a single opponent in his entire career. Kasparov, age 34, retained his title as world chess champion. The final score of the match was 3.5 points to 2.5 points. Chung-Jen Tan was the leader of the IBM Deep Blue team. The Deep Blue development team took home the $700,000 first prize, while Kasparov received $400,000.
Alan Kay is a brilliant software developer and microcomputer pioneer. From his youth, Alan Kay had exceptional abilities and interests in music and mathematics. He got involved in computer programming while in the U.S. Air Force. He attended the University of Colorado, and then, in 1966, did graduate work at the University of Utah under David Evans, a pioneer in the field of computer graphics.
At the University of Utah, Kay was introduced to the work Ivan Sutherland had done at MIT, on the computer graphics program "Sketchpad." Kay worked on developing software for a computer called Flex. Alan Kay received his Ph.D. in computer science in 1969 and took a position with the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Stanford.
In 1971, Kay joined Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) in California. At PARC, Kay headed a team known as the Learning Research Group. He conceived a computer that would have a graphical interface, be extremely easy to use, and which could interface with libraries and databases all over the world. He called his conceptual computer the Dynabook. Dr. Kay also worked with Chuck Thacker and others on the Alto Computer and related research.
Although a functioning Dynabook was never constructed, the Alto computer developed in 1971 contained many of Kay's concepts. The Alto used a language written by Kay called "Smalltalk" which used multiple document display, window-like partitions, and a mouse pointing device (based on Dr. Doug Engelbart's development in 1964-68). Alan Kay later joined Apple Computer Company.
BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) 1964
Dr. John Kemeny was one of the developers of the BASIC programming language. Together with Dr. Thomas E. Kurtz, they developed BASIC in the 1960's at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. BASIC was a very easy programming language to learn and use, and versions have been created for computers of all sizes.
Dr. Kemeny was born in Budapest, Hungary, and came to the United States in 1940. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics at Princeton and wrote numerous books and articles. He served as the president of Dartmouth College until his retirement in 1981.
Tom Kilburn received his bachelors and masters degrees in mathematics from Cambridge University, and his Ph.D. in computer research from Manchester University. In 1947, Tom Kilburn, F. C. Williams, Max Newman and others built the Manchester Mark I computer at the University of Manchester, England. It was also known as the Manchester Automatic Digital Machine (MADM).
The Mark I was the first functioning prototype of an all electronic computer with a stored program. Kilburn also worked on the MEG computer (1951-1954) which used cathode ray tube storage. Ferranti used this same design, but incorporated ferrite core memory instead, and called it the Mercury computer (1957).
In 1953, Kilburn worked on developing probably the first transistorized computer. Kilburn also worked on the MUSE project which eventually led to the creation of the ATLAS computer in 1962. From 1966 to the mid 1970's he was also involved in the creation of the MU5 multiuser computer.
Dr. Gary Kildall (1942-1994)
Dr. Kildall was an accomplished airplane pilot, teacher, software developer, writer and computer pioneer. Dr. Kildall received his bachelor degree in mathematics and masters and Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Washington. Dr. Kildall experimented with the early Intel 4004 microprocessor and developed the first high level language for microprocessors called PL/M. The PL/M language was used on the Intel 8008 and 8080 processors.
In 1972, while a professor of computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, he wrote CP/M, an operating system for microcomputers which became the leading operating system for many years. It was Kildall who developed the letter designation system (A, B, C, etc.) for identifying disk drives.
At one point in the early development of personal computers, IBM offered to sell both MS-DOS and CP/M with its PC line. However, IBM priced CP/M at $240 while pricing DOS at $40. This pushed DOS into the marketplace as the standard microcomputer operating system, gaining a significant lead by 1984.
Dr. Kildall also founded Digital Research Inc. (DRI) in Pacific Grove, California, and developed the "Dr. Logo" computer language. (DRI was later absorbed by Novell, Inc.) Dr. Kildall also founded KnowledgeSet company and Prometheus Light and Sound. He is the author of the "Computer Connections: People, Places, and Events in the Evolution of the Personal Computer Industry." (Note: CP/M is still in use by many computer hobbyists and professionals who still utilize some of the many early CP/M machines, such as Osborne, Commodore and others.)
"User Friendly," magazine, July 16, 1994, article:
"Gary Kildall's Work Lives On;"
and various references in the book "Gates" by Stephen Manes and Paul Andrews,
BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) 1964
Dr. Thomas Kurtz was one of the developers of the BASIC programming language. Together with Dr. John Kemeny, they developed BASIC in the 1960's at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. BASIC was a very easy programming language to learn and use, and versions have been created for computers of all sizes.
Dr, Kurtz received his Ph.D. from Princeton and is co-author of "Basic Programming" one of the first books on BASIC. Dr. Kurtz was also a Professor of Mathematics at Dartmouth College, Director of Dartmouth's Kiewit Computation Center, and Director of the Office of Academic Computing.
Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz (1646-1716)(photo)
Von Leibniz was born in Leipzig, Germany, and traveled to Paris where he studied the mathematical works of Descartes and Pascal. Von Leibniz was impressed with the calculating machine developed by Pascal (1646). Von Leibniz improved upon Pascal's device and in 1671, invented a machine to perform multiplication, division and extraction of square roots. This device, called the "Leibniz Wheel" was a hand-cranked calculator that could only handle simple arithmetical operations and never became widely used. Leibniz also invented a device called "Stepped-Reckoner" which was a sophisticated calculating device, but never managed to fully perfect it.
Douglas Lenat is president of Cycorp Inc. in Austin, Texas, and head of the Cyc Project. He is also a consulting professor at Stanford University.
Cyc takes its name from the encyclopedia. The Cyc Project is a multi-million dollar project designed to study artificial intelligence. The Cyc computer contains a massive database of facts and learning programs. The Cyc Project was started in 1984 at Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC), an Austin based research consortium of high-tech companies. In 1994, MCC spun off Cyc on its own. The Cyc project is one of the largest, continuously running artificial intelligence research projects in existence.
J.C.R. ("Lick") Licklider (1915-1990)
J.C.R. ("Lick") Licklider was a visionary and pioneer in the field of human-computer interaction and specifically the field of interactive computing. Licklider's work laid the foundation for graduate work in the newly created field of computer science. Licklider joined the U.S. Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1962, to create and manage a program for funding research. He became the first Director of IPTO, ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office. Licklider pursued his vision of increased human-computer interaction and interactive computing despite criticism from some areas of the computer establishment. His perseverance led to breakthroughs in interactive computing and set the trend for further developments in this area. Licklider's responsibilities at ARPA included selecting and funding researchers to build and lead research groups. Licklider was also the architect of Project MAC ("Machine Aided Cognition") at MIT and other projects which helped shape the computing field. Prior to Licklider's work at ARPA, there were no U.S. universities granting a Ph.D. in computer science. Licklider, through ARPA, provided funding for the research needed to create university graduate programs in computer science at U.C. Berkeley, CMU, MIT and Stanford. Notable among Licklider's publications during the 1960's are "Man-Computer Symbiosis," and "The Computer as a Communication Device" (the second publication was co-authored with Robert Taylor of ARPA).
Adapted in part from the booklet "In Memoriam: J.C.R. Licklider," August 7, 1990, Digital Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, California, and from ARPA's historical publications.
Chao Mai and C.V. Prothro founded Dallas Semiconductor in 1984.
Allan Marquand (1853-1924)
In about 1881, Marquand, a logic instructor and professor of art and archeology at Princeton University, built a mechanical logic machine, based on William Stanley Jevons' 1869 machine. Marquand's machine used 256 wooden parts to accommodate 8 terms. It was used to demonstrate logical analysis and problem solving. Marquand also developed a written diagram for a simple electrical logic machine, which he described in his paper "First Circuit for an Electrical Logic Machine" (circa 1885). He described how his machine would use electromagnets to control pointers on his logic machine. There is no evidence that construction of the electrical machine was ever attempted, but it is probably the first drawing of an electronic machine for logical problem solving in existence.
John Mauchly (1907-1980)(photo)
John Mauchly was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He received his Ph.D. in Physics in 1932. In 1941, he joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Engineering. Mauchly was assigned to work in the area calculating ballistics tables for U.S. Army Ordnance. In 1942, he wrote a paper suggesting that an electronic calculator be constructed to perform ballistics calculations. In 1943, the suggestion was turned into a formal project by Herman Goldstein, who was stationed at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. The project resulted in ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) which was completed in 1946. The ENIAC was a milestone in the development of computing technology. The ENIAC was about 1,000 times faster than other computing methods.
In 1947, Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert started their own computer company, the Electronic Control Company, which later became the Eckert- Mauchly Computer Company. This was the very first computer company in the United States. Mauchly was also co-developer of the EDSAC and BINAC computers. Eckert and Mauchly's work on a marketable computer, along with Remington-Rand, resulted in the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) which became a household name in the business computing field. Mauchly was also a founder and first vice-president of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM). (See also "ENIAC" and "EDVAC.")
In 1939, John Mauchly attended a scientific meeting. One of the attendees at that meeting (unknown to Mauchly) was linked to a communist group. Later, during the McCarthy era, this fact is used to revoke Mauchly's security clearance, thus denying the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Co. vital government contracts for the UNIVAC. This critical action by the U.S. Government was one factor that contributed to the eventual demise of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Co.
DATE - BRIEF BACKGROUND & SELECTED ACHIEVEMENTS
1932 - Received Ph.D. in physics from Johns Hopkins University.
1933-1941 - Mauchly taught physics at Ursinus College; built an analog computer to do harmonic analysis of weather data.
1941 - Mauchly joins the faculty of the Moore School as an instructor.
1943-1946 - Designed and developed the ENIAC with J. Presper Eckert.
1946 - John Mauchly, J. Presper Eckert, and John Von Neumann, begin work on the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer).
1947 - Co-founded the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation.
1948 - John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert develop the BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer).
1949 - Began development of the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer).
1949 - Mauchly receives the Howard Potts Medal of the Franklin Institute.
1950 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company was acquired by Remington-Rand. The UNIVAC I was completed and became the first commercially available computer. The Eckert-Mauchly Division of Remington-Rand became the UNIVAC Division of Remington-Rand.
1959 - John Mauchly leaves Remington-Rand to form Mauchly Associates.
1961 - Both Mauchly and Eckert receive the John Scott Award.
1965 - Both Eckert and Mauchly receive the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Philadelphia Section Award for fundamental concepts and contributions to electronic computers and for the construction of the first all-electronic computer.
1967 - Mauchly formed "Dynatrend," a consulting company.
1973 - Jointly with J. Presper Eckert, Mauchly receives the Philadelphia Man of the Year Award.
John McCarthy received his B.S. in Mathematics from Cal Tech in 1948 and his PhD. in Mathematics from Princeton in 1951. McCarthy participated in the development of the ALGOL 58 and ALGOL 60 programming languages and created the LISP programming system while at MIT. McCarthy proposed the "time-sharing" concept in 1957, whereby mainframe computers could run several programs at once, with each program being given a turn in the CPU at millisecond speeds. McCarthy is probably best known for his work in computer intelligence and the adoption of the term "artificial intelligence" (or "AI") is often attributed to him. In 1960, McCarthy developed the LISP (List Processing) programming language, which was specifically designed for artificial intelligence research. In 1953, he worked at MIT with Marvin Minsky under Claude Shannon. He helped establish an artificial intelligence laboratory at MIT in 1957, and in 1963, he left MIT to continue work in artificial intelligence at Stanford University. In 1971, he received the Alan Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
Gordon Moore earned his Ph.D. at Cal Tech in 1954 in chemistry and physics and worked with William Shockley, one of the inventors of the transistor, in 1956. From 1956 to 1957 he worked at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. Moore was also one of the founders of Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and he stayed with Fairchild until 1968. In 1968, along with Robert Noyce, he co-founded Intel Corporation ("INtelligent ELectronics"). With 1993 revenues of $8.8 billion, Intel is the world's largest producer of microprocessor chips. Moore is chairman of the board (1994). Gordon Moore is listed in the "Forbes 400" magazine (1994) and his stock value is estimated at $1.5 billion.
In 1964, Gordon Moore was asked to predict the future trend of the semiconductor industry. He posited that chip density would increase tremendously. Today, Moore's Law, as it has come to be known, states that the density of chips can be expected to double every 1-1/2 years. Gordon Moore, speaking on the growth of the semiconductor industry, also made the frequently quoted analogy (slightly paraphrased here):
"If the automobile industry had moved as fast as the semiconductor industry, your car would travel comfortably at several million miles per hour, get roughly a million miles to the gallon, and it would be cheaper to throw away your Rolls Royce and get a new one than it would be to park it downtown for the evening." (For a discussion of the evolution of "Moore's Law" see the video tape: "Nanometers and Gigabucks," a lecture by Gordon E. Moore, Intel Corporation, January 1996, University Video Communications, http://www.uvc.com.)
Samuel Morse was born on April 12, 1791 in Charlestown, Massachusetts. He graduated from Yale in 1810 with an interest in art. He travelled to London in 1811 where he studied at the Royal Academy of Arts.
In 1832, while traveling aboard the ship Sully, from Europe to the United States, he became intensely interested in the electric telegraph and its potential. After five years of work, he demonstrated the first electric telegraph in 1837. Morse also invented the code used to transmit messages over the telegraph, which became known as Morse Code.
After a failed attempt in 1838 to get Congress to provide support for his idea, Morse finally set up a successful demonstration of the telegraph, by wiring a connection between the U.S. Supreme Court in the Capitol to Baltimore. On May 24, 1844, he sent the message "What had God wrought."
Telegraph technology spread very fast after this event and within the next 12 years, it was in use throughout the U.S. and Europe.
Robert T. Morris achieved a special brand of notoriety by creating and spreading a virus that infected thousands of computers on the INTERNET.
John Napier (1550-1617)
John Napier, born in Merchiston, Scotland, near Edinburgh, was a mathematician and inventor. Napier discovered logarithms, which explained division as a series of subtractions, and multiplication as a series of additions. Logarithmic notation made it easier to invent calculating machines that could multiply and divide large numbers. Napier devised the use of small instruments or rods which facilitated multiplication and division of large numbers. They were described in his book called "Rabdologiae" published in 1617. He used sticks of bone to help illustrate this method. This gave his development the nickname "
Napier's Bones." Napier also developed formulas that were used in spherical trigonometry. The "Napier's Bones" technique opened the door for later work on mechanical computing mechanisms, since it showed how more complex operations could be accomplished through a series of repetitive simpler steps.
Ted Nelson is an author, visionary and computer enthusiast who promoted many of the concepts of personal computing through his writings. Three of his more well-known books are:
"Dream Machines" containing predictions of how computers might be used in the future (1974).
"The Home Computer Revolution" which discussed the current and coming uses for computers (1977).
"Literary Machines" (1983).
For information on Ted Nelson's books, contact: Ted Nelson Studios, 741 Tenth Street, Santa Monica, CA 90402-2899
Allen Newell (1927-1992)
Allen Newell received his bachelor of science degree in physics from Stanford University (1949) and his PhD in industrial administration from Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1957. Newell worked as a scientific staff member at Rand Corporation, doing significant work in the areas of artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, focusing on problem-solving and cognitive architecture that supports intelligent action. He is noted for his work on "Soar," an architecture for intelligent problem-solving and learning. Soar provides a basis for continued research on knowledge acquisition systems, including a unified theory of human cognition, human-computer interaction, and the efficiency of production systems. Newell also served as Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. Newell was the first president of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Dr. Newell received the Alan M. Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery in 1975, the Research Excellence Award of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence in 1989, and the President's National Medal of Science (U.S.) in 1992.
His Early Background
Heinz Nixdorf was born on April 9, 1925, in Paderborn, Germany. He was the oldest of five children and the son of Walter and Anne Nixdorf. In 1939, Heinz graduated from the elementary school with very good grades and attended school at Koblenz, where he prepared to become a teacher.
In 1941, the ministry of culture in Berlin, allowed him to attend the high school there. Nixdorf started at the Reismann-High School in Paderborn. Nixdorf was an extraordinarily talented student, with special skills in mathematics and natural sciences with exceptional abilities in analytical thinking. On several occasions, Nixdorf was allowed to skip over certain math classes because of his advanced ability.
In 1943, after his graduation from school, Nixdorf was drafted into government work then into the air force school in Ith, in Weserbergland. Nixdorf served in the war and spent time in Czechoslovakia. In 1947, Nixdorf began his physical studies at the Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe University in Frankfurt where he obtained a scholarship. In 1948, Nixdorf got a job at the German sister corporation of American company Remington Rand Corporation. There he met Physicist Dr. Walter Sprick. A data processing expert, Sprick, ran the development laboratory of Remington Rand in Frankfurt-Rodelheim. The 42 year old physicist, was interested in automatic symbol identification of electronic adding machines, as well as computer technology. In 1949, Sprick had planned and built the first German electronic calculator for the Landesbrandkasse in Kiel. After a few months the head of the firm stopped the project. Nixdorf suggested to Sprick to found their own company to build and sell the machines themselves. Sprick, however, wanted to work for IBM instead. At IBM, Sprick made a career as an inventor and developer of electronic scanning machines. Sprick was referred to by IBM as the father of automatic text readers and he obtained two important patents. Meanwhile, Nixdorf took the risk of freelancing alone. He travelled with his motorcycle through Nordhein-Westfalen and visited several corporations to present them with his concepts. Nixdorf finally found an interest for his machines at the Rheinishe-Westfalsche Electrical Power Station (RWE), in Essen, the largest power supplier in Germany. The company gave Nixdorf a grant for 30,000 DM for the development of vacuum tube based calculators. Nixdorf also built counting machines which could be connected to punched card machines. In July 1952, Nixdorf founded the "Labor fur Impulstechnik" (LFI). In September 1952, Nixdorf hired his first worker, the well educated radio and television technician Alfred Wiercoich. Their first successful product was an electronic calculator which was built on radio tube technology and used for bookkeeping at the RWE power plant. After a few years, Nixdorf sold his innovative products in Germany, and Europe, from German and French office machine producers. Nixdorf built the electronics for Bull, Wanderer and Exacta (Exacta 6000 Multitronic).
Nixdorf believed that the electronic calculating machine was not merely a product for the needs of the corporation but could have much more broad application in society. Early Calculators and Computers
In 1953, Nixdorf developed the ES 12 and ES 24 electronic calculators. By 1954, the LFI had expanded to ten technicians. In 1957, Nixdorf's company completed development of the Electronic Calculator EM 22, including all basic calculating functions. The EM 22 came on the market in 1960 in a transistorized version as the Gamma 172. Nixdorf obtained Wander Werker in Koln as a distributor for his products, the Wanderer Werker also managed the French company Bull, as well as their own office machine production. Wanderer Werker became Nixdorf's major customer for the next few years. In 1958, Nixdorf hired a development engineer. Prior to this, Nixdorf had developed all products himself.
During this same period, Nixdorf developed the electronic multiplication unit for the Exacta-Continental "Multitronic 6000" of which over 2,000 were sold. In 1960, his company worked on the development of the Gamma 172 and Gamma 322 computers. In 1962, they were involved in the development and world-wide marketing of desktop calculators with internal text printer (Wanderer Conti). The Wanderer Logatronic (later called the Nixdorf Universal Computer 820) was presented at the Wanderer booth at the Hannover trade fair in 1965. The Digitronic/Logitronic which was built on a component basis was the first small computer which was based on semiconductors. The Wanderer Werker, the Keinze-Apparate Gmbh in Villingen and the Ruf-ZBuchhaltung started to sell the Digitronic. By the middle of 1970 there were more than 15,000 of the "Nixdorf 820" sold. In April 1968, Nixdorf bought his biggest customer, the Wanderer Werke in Koln. The LFI took over the sales net and production facilities of Wanderer Werke. The price was 17.2 million DM.
In 1968, LFI became "Nixdorf Computer Inc." (NCAG) Heinz Nixdorf changed the headquarters from Koln to his home town in Paderborn.
His company went through various changes during the 1970's and 1980's and eventually became part of Siemens, and was called Siemens-Nixdorf Information Systems AG.
Siemens-Nixdorf corporation was formed in 1990 through the merger of the Data Information Division of Siemens with the Nixdorf Computer Company. Nixdorf was started in 1956 by Heinz Nixdorf. Their first products included equipment for accounting and census taking in Germany. Nixdorf grew into $3.5 billion dollar computer company with over 25,000 employees internationally. Economic downtrends in the high tech industry in the 1980's prompted the move towards the merger with Siemens.
Siemens-Nixdorf ranked first in European suppliers of information technology products and services and ninth worldwide, with revenues of over $7 billion. Siemens-Nixdorf has corporate offices in Burlington, Massachusetts.
Information on the history of Dr. Heinz Nixdorf can be obtained from:
The Heinz Nixdorf Museum
See also Klaus Kemper's book
"Heinz Nixdorf: Eine Deutsche Karriere."
William Norris, founder of Control Data Corporation, was born on a Nebraska farm. He studied electrical engineering at the University of Nebraska, and went to work for Westinghouse Electric Company in 1934. Norris later joined Engineering Research Associates (ERA) and became Vice President of Operations. ERA was acquired by Remington Rand in 1951. In 1955, Remington Rand and Sperry Corporation merged to form Sperry Rand. This new company consolidated several disparate computer units under the well known UNIVAC name and made W. C. Norris vice president and general manager in charge of all computer operations. Norris tried to urge top management of Sperry Rand to forge ahead into the computer systems field. IBM was just getting off the ground in computing, and Norris felt that Sperry Rand had an opportunity to capture a very large market share. Sperry Rand did not move fast enough, however, and IBM took the industry lead by the late 1950's, a position that IBM has maintained since that time. Norris and several associates were frustrated with the lack of adequate emphasis on computer systems at Sperry Rand, and left the company in 1957 and formed Control Data Corporation (CDC). Control Data Corporation became a $1 billion dollar company in less than 14 years. Sperry Rand filed a suit against Control Data in 1958, but settled out of court in 1962. William Norris retired from his positions as chairman and chief executive officer in 1986.
Robert Noyce (1927-1990)
In 1959, Robert Noyce, working at Fairchild Semiconductor, developed the "monolithic idea" for integrated circuits. Noyce was the developer of the silicon mesa and planar transistors, and paved the way for commercially viable integrated circuits. Noyce holds at least 16 patents for semiconductor devices, methods and structures. In 1959, Fairchild Semiconductor marketed the planar transistor, the first device to use integrated circuit technology. Roy Nutt
Roy Nutt and Fletcher Jones founded Computer Sciences Corporation in 1959.
William Oughtred (1574-1660)
William Oughtred, an Englishman, is credited with the invention of the slide rule. Oughtred added a sliding ruler to the Gunter Scale ruler developed by Edmund Gunter (1581-1626) which gave it great usefulness and accuracy as a computing aid. Bibliography on Slide Rules(photo)
David Packard, a brilliant entrepreneur and businessman, was born in Pueblo, Colorado. He received his bachelor of arts degree from Stanford University in 1934 and a masters in electrical engineering in 1939. From 1936 to 1938, Packard was an engineer with the General Electric Company in Schenectady, New York. In 1938, he returned to Palo Alto and the following year formed a partnership known as Hewlett-Packard Company with William R. Hewlett, his classmate and friend.
HP's first product was a resistance-capacitance audio oscillator based on a design developed by Hewlett when he was in graduate school. The company's first "plant" was a small garage in Palo Alto, and the initial capital amounted to $538. Packard left the company in 1969 to become U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense in the first Nixon administration. He served in this capacity for almost three years and resigned his post in 1971. When he returned to California, he was re-elected chairman of the board of Hewlett-Packard. Over the years, Dave Packard was active in a number of professional, educational, civic and business organizations. He was a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a lifelong member of the Instrument Society of America. He was a co-founder and past chairman of the American Electronics Association. In 1986 he gave $70 million dollars to Stanford University and another $25 million in 1994.
Dave Packard was a member of The Trilateral Commission from 1973 to 1981. From 1975 to 1982, he was a member of the US-USSR Trade & Economic Council's committee on science and technology, and he chaired the U.S.-Japan Advisory Commission from 1983 to 1985. From 1985 to 1986, he was chairman of President Reagan's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management, known as the "Packard Commission." He was also a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology from 1990 to 1992. Packard holds numerous honorary degrees from a variety of colleges and universities. In September 1993, he retired as chairman of the board and was named chairman emeritus. Dave Packard's stock holdings are estimated at $2.2 billion, and he was listed in the "Forbes 400" magazine in 1994.
DAVID PACKARD & HEWLETT-PACKARD
1939-1947 - Co-founder and Partner of Hewlett-Packard
1947-1964 - President of Hewlett-Packard
1964-1969 - Chairman of the board and chief executive officer
1985-1986 - Chair of President Reagan's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management.
1990-1992 - Presidential Advisor on Science and Technology
1971-1993 - Chairman of the board of Hewlett-Packard
1993 - Chairman Emeritus of Hewlett-Packard (References: Hewlett-Packard Company; "Forbes 400" magazine 1994 edition.)
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Pascal was a French mathematician and philosopher. Pascal did considerable research with regard to the pressure of liquids. He explained principle that described how a liquid in a vessel carried pressure equally in all directions. This came to be known as Pascal's Law, and had importance in the field of hydraulics. Pascal's interest in calculating may have come from a desire to assist his father with the numerous calculations required in his job as Superintendent of Taxes. In about 1642, Pascal developed a calculator called the "Arithmatique" or "Pascaline." Pascal's device used a series of toothed wheels, which were turned by hand and which could handle numbers up to 999,999.999.
Pascal's device was also called the "numerical wheel calculator" and was one of the world's first mechanical adding machines.
John Patterson started as a farm boy in Dayton, Ohio. He later became owner of a coal business and retail store. After graduating from Dartmouth College, he worked as a toll-booth attendant on the Miami and Erie Canal. He learned to appreciate the value of correct accounting and collections. He saw potential in the cash register company operated by John Ritty. In 1884, when he was 41, Patterson purchased the failing company, founding the National Cash Register Company ("NCR"). Patterson remained president of NCR for almost 40 years.
Under Patterson's direction, NCR rose to become one of the strongest companies in the U.S. Patterson's philosophy was to continually improve his products to meet or exceed customer expectations. His efforts drew attention during his lifetime from Senator Warren Harding and President William McKinley, who visited NCR's progressive factory layout and facilities. Patterson focused on developing employees and their performance. NCR had its own gym, with uniforms and routines for executive workouts. One of Patterson's sales managers, Thomas Watson, Sr., later went on to found the International Business Machines Corporation ("IBM").
Dr. Trevor Percy designed the CSIRAC, the first computer built in Australia, in 1947. The CSIRAC was completed in 1949 and is still intact. The CSIRAC was a large, valve-based computer that had a power consumption of 30,000 watts.
CSIR stands for "Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization"
Dr. Alan J. Perlis (1922-1990)
Alan Perlis received his Ph.D. in mathematics from MIT in 1950. He worked as a research mathematician in the computing laboratory of the Ballistic Research Lab at Aberdeen Proving Grounds until January 1952. Dr. Perlis also worked on developing programs for the Whirlwind computer at MIT. Dr. Perlis became chairman of the ACM Programming Languages Committee in 1957 and was a delegate to the Zurich conference in 1958 where ALGOL 58 was defined. He was the first editor of the "Communications of the ACM" publication and became president of the ACM in 1962. He served as chairman of the math department at Carnegie from 1960 to 1964. Dr. Perlis gave the first ACM Turing lecture in 1966 and received the Turing Award. Dr. Perlis has received a number of honorary doctorates in science for his many contributions to the field of computer science. He accepted the Higgins Chair in Computer Science at Yale in 1971 and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1977.
Henry Ross Perot, a former salesman for IBM, founded Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in 1962. His net worth exceeded one billion dollars by 1969. In 1984, he sold EDS to General Motors for about $1 billion. In 1988 he founded Perot Systems. He is also noted for his organization of a rescue operation in 1979 where two EDS employees were successfully rescued from an Iranian prison and brought through the Turkish border. H. Ross Perot gained national recognition when he ran for the U.S. presidency in 1992. He established the "United We Stand" political party and spent about $60 million on the election, and came in third. "Forbes 400" magazine (1994) estimates his net worth at $2.9 billion.
In 1910, James Powers, a statistical engineer at the U.S. Census Bureau, designed a new type of punch-card equipment which used a "simultaneous punching" technique. His machine had 240 keys, each one corresponded to one of the items on the census questionnaire. This allowed data to be entered for an entire card before it was physically punched, thus saving losses on incorrect punches. This was a 90 column card with round holes. The Powers system was used in the 1910 U.S. Census. In 1911, James Powers formed the Powers Tabulating Machine Company, which became the chief competitor of Herman Hollerith's company. In 1927, the Powers company merged with Remington and Rand and became part of the new Remington Rand Company. The Powers company became the Tabulating Machines Division of Remington Rand Corp.
C.V. Prothro and Chao Mai founded Dallas Semiconductor in 1984.
In 1958, Simon Ramo, U.S. engineer and research scientist joined with Dean E. Wooldridge to form The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation. That company later merged with Thompson Products to form "TRW". Ramo received his Ph.D. from California Institute of Technology. He worked at General Electric on microwave research and developed the electron microscope. Ramo also worked at Hughes Aircraft from 1946 to 1953 where he helped develop computer systems for guided missiles.
From 1954 to 1958, Ramo served as chief scientist for the U.S. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile System (ICBM). The Ramo-Wooldridge company became the technical advisor to the U.S. government on its ballistic missile program. In 1958, Thompson Products merged with Ramo-Wooldridge to become Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge. In 1965, it shortened its name to the now familiar "TRW." Under the direction of David J. Wright (president 1953-1958, chairman 1958- 1969) TRW experienced tremendous growth and diversification, both by internal growth and by acquisition.
TRW became an internationally-known name. TRW also became an early leader in the design and manufacture of early space craft and currently makes about one-third of all space craft produced. TRW has since expanded to become the 37th largest information technology supplier in the world. As of 1992, its information systems revenues exceeded $1.8 billion.
In 1901, James A. Rand, a bank clerk and inventor, developed the visible index concept. He patented his ideas and formed a company to produce and market the visible index products which improved the speed and methods of record keeping by many businesses.
In 1916, his son, James Henry Rand, Jr., started his own business manufacturing visible index office equipment. By 1926, his business had become a $10 million dollar company, Rand-Kardex. In 1927, Rand-Kardex merged with Remington Typewriter Company to form Remington Rand.
Wayne Ratliff was the developer of dBase II, dBase III and III Plus, the very successful database software program for PCs marketed by Ashton-Tate. DBase II was originally called "Vulcan." There was no product called "dBase I." Wayne Ratliff later released a product called Vulcan, from his own company, Ratliff Software Productions, Inc.
Ed Roberts was one of the designers of the Altair microcomputer and the founder of MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems). MITS was started in 1968 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS initially sold radio transmitters for model airplanes and later sold calculator kits.
In 1974, Roberts and others designed a microcomputer based on the Intel 8080 chip. The name was chosen by Lauren Solomon, based on the Star Trek episode "A Voyage to Altair." (Lauren Soloman was the daughter of Leslie Solomon, technical editor for Popular Electronics magazine.)
The Altair appeared on the cover of the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics and became the first successfully-marketed personal computer. Over 10,000 Altairs were sold. The Altair's bus design was used in many other microcomputers to follow.
Roberts left MITS in 1977, the year it merged with Pertec. Ed Roberts is now a medical doctor living in Georgia.
Reference: "Historically Brewed," magazine, Issue #9, June 1996, "Interview with Ed Roberts."
Eliphalet Remington (1793-1861)
And the Evolution of the Remington Companies
Remington was born in Suffield, Connecticut. He was an American inventor and businessman. In 1816, he constructed a flint rifle and soon thereafter received requests from neighbors to build additional models. In 1828, he built a factory along the Erie Canal and founded the Remington Arms Company. Remington and his son Philo (1816-1889) ran the business together.
In 1873, Remington purchased the rights to Christopher Sholes' typewriter and begins producing these machines at his factory. Remington refined and marketed the typewriter as the Remington Model 1. The name Remington became associated with a variety of different product lines in American history, most notably were guns, sewing machines, typewriters, computers and electric shavers.
THE "REMINGTON" NAME
Dates and Events in the Evolution of "Remington" Companies
1816 Eliphalet Remington builds a flint lock rifle.
1828 Remington founds "Remington Arms Company."
1873 Remington buys the Sholes typewriter patent and begins making Remington typewriters. By this time, Remington also makes sewing machines.
1892 E. Remington & Sons merges with Standard Typewriter Company to form the Remington Standard Typewriter Company. Remington later absorbs other companies including Yost Writing Machine Company, Monarch Typewriter Company, Densmore Typewriter Company, Smith Premier Typewriter Company
1927 Remington Rand Corporation is formed from five companies, Remington Standard Typewriter Company, Rand Kardex, Powers Accounting Machine Company, Safe Cabinet Company, Dalton Adding Machine Company. The new company is called Remington Rand. Powers becomes the Tabulating Machines Division of Remington Rand Corporation. The consolidation was engineered by James Henry Rand and Irving Fisher. Remington Rand later merged with Sperry Corporation to form Sperry Rand. (See also UNISYS).
1950 The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company is acquired by Remington Rand, Eckert became the director of Engineering for the Eckert-Mauchly Division. The UNIVAC I was completed and
became the first commercially available computer. The Eckert-Mauchly Division of Remington became the UNIVAC Division. The new computers are sometimes referred to as "Remington Rand UNIVAC."
1955 Remington Rand Corporation merges with Sperry Corporation to form Sperry Rand. The "Remington" name is dropped from the corporate title.
1979 Sperry Rand is renamed Sperry Corporation.
1986 Burroughs and Sperry merge to form Unisys (United Systems), the world's second largest computer company. See also Remington Rand
C Dennis Ritchie was a software developer at Bell Labs. In the late 1960's and early 1970's, Ritchie worked with Ken Thompson who had developed the Unix operating system (1969). Dennis Ritchie developed the C programming language, and in 1973, Unix was rewritten in C, to improve it and make it more transportable to other systems. In 1996, Dennis Ritchie announced that he and some associates are designing a streamlined version of a "Java-like" programming language, given the code name "Inferno."
See also: "History of Unix"
BYTE Magazine, August 1983
Popular Science, July 1996
Douglas T. Ross
Douglas Ross received his Ph.D. in Mathematics from MIT in 1956. He held a variety of positions at MIT, including Head of the Computer Applications Group at the Electronics Systems Laboratory, Lecturer in the Electrical Engineering Department, and Project Engineer for the MIT Computer- Aided Design Project. Among his many activities were the creation and direction of the development of the APT System for automatic programming of numerically controlled machine tools, research and development in language theory, language design, generalized compiler construction, computer graphics hardware and software, and design applications. From 1969 to 1975 he served as President of SofTech and later served as Chairman of the Board.
In 1963, the paper he co-authored with J. E. Rodriguez ("Theoretical Foundations for the Computer-Aided Design System") received the Prize Paper Award at the AFIPS Spring Joint Computer Conference. Mr. Ross received the Joseph Marie Jacquard Award from the Numerical Control Society. Mr. Ross was an organizer and participant in the NATO Software Engineering Conferences in Germany in 1968 and in Italy in 1969. In 1980, he received the Distinguished Service Award from the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
Dr. Edgar A. Sack
Dr. Edgar Sack began his very distinguished career in 1954 when he joined Westinghouse Research Labs as a research engineer. He became manager of Westinghouse's Electronics Department in 1960, and in 1962 he became manager of engineering for Westinghouse's Microelectronics Division. He eventually became division manager in 1967.
General Instrument Corporation...
Sack later joined General Instruments where he became vice president of its Microelectronics Group. He held that position from 1973 to 1983. During that time, General Instruments saw an increase in business from about $10 million to over $180 million. Dr. Sack became a senior vice president of General Instruments in 1977.
Dr. Sack joined Zilog, Inc., in November 1984. He held the position of president and chief executive officer. In 1990, he was also elected chairman of the board. In 1989, he led an investor-employee buy out of Zilog from its parent company Exxon, in 1991 Zilog held its initial public offering. Dr. Sack has helped lead and oversee Zilog's successes. Dr. Sack received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University.
Zilog Inc. Corporate Profiles, courtesy of Zilog Inc.
Zilog Company Profile, Semiconductor Industry and Business Survey
Jean Sammet was the first group leader for programmers in the engineering organization of Sperry Gyroscope company on Long Island. Sperry Gyroscope later became part of Sperry Rand (later UNISYS), from 1955 to 1958. She taught some of the earliest computer courses that were given for academic credit. She organized and taught graduate courses in 1956- 1957 entitled "Digital Computer Programming," and "Advanced Digital Computer Programming" at Adelphi College. These early courses utilized the UNIVAC and later used the FORTRAN language once it was released.
In 1958, she was the Section Head for MOBIDIC Programming at Sylvania Electric Products. She supervised the initial specification and design of the COBOL compiler for the MOBIDIC system. She joined IBM in 1961 where she held a variety of positions including Programming Technology Language Manager. In 1979, Jean Sammet became the Software Technology Manager for the Federal Systems Division. From 1974 to 1976, Miss Sammet was president of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1977. She received an honorary Sc.D. degree from Mt. Holyoke College in 1978. In 1985 she received the ACM's Distinguished Service Award for her contributions to the field of computer science.
Pehr George Scheutz (1785-1873)
Pehr George Scheutz, a Swedish lawyer, printer and publisher, built a "difference engine" in 1834 based on Charles Babbage's early designs. He and his son, Edvard, worked on the machine together.
In 1851, the Swedish Academy provided Scheutz with funding to build a better model, which was completed in 1853. His machine won a gold medal at the 1855 Paris Exhibition.
Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635)
Wilhelm Schickard was a German mathematician and clergyman who designed and built a mechanism which could add, subtract, multiply and divide.
Schickard's machine, designed and built in 1623, was similar in operation to the slide rule but incorporated a set of metal wheels that performed the arithmetical operations. Schickard called his device a "calculator-clock." Schickard's device was probably one of the first mechanical calculators.
John Sculley joined Apple Computer in April 1983 as its 4,450th employee. Sculley was, at 44, one of the oldest employees at Apple, where the average age was 27. Sculley was formerly the president of Pepsi-Cola.
In 1987, Sculley wrote a 429-page book entitled "Odyssey" (Harper & Row) outlining his challenges and experiences at Apple. Sculley left Apple in 1993 and went to head up Spectrum. He resigned from Spectrum on Feb 7, 1994. Sculley filed suit claiming Spectrum's financial position was misrepresented to him and Spectrum counter sued claiming theft of trade secrets. Both suits were dropped by March 1994.
William Shockley (1910-1989)
William Shockley, co-inventor of the transistor, was born in London, England on February 13, 1910. Shockley earned his bachelor of science degree in physics from Cal Tech in 1932, and took a teaching fellowship at MIT. He obtained his doctorate from MIT in 1936. Shockley then went to work at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey. He left Bell Labs temporarily during World War II, but returned after the war. Along with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, Shockley is credited with the invention of the point-contact transistor in December 1947. Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain shared the 1956 Nobel Prize for physics for their achievment.
Shockley later went on to improve the transistor and developed the N-P-N (negative-positive-negative) transistor design, which he patented in 1948. In 1951, Shockley headed the development group that designed the first reliable junction transistor.
In 1954, Shockley became the Director of Transistor Physics Research at Bell Labs. He left Bell Labs in 1955 and founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View California. In 1957, Robert Noyce and six other engineers left Shockley Semiconductor to found Fairchild Semiconductor.
Shockley's business did not recover from the loss of so many of its key engineers. In April 1960, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory was purchased by Clevite Transistor.
Clive Sinclair, a brilliant U.K. scientist and inventor, was highly involved in electronics technology from the 1950's. He founded a company called at various times Sinclair Radionics, Sinclair Electronics, Sinclair Research, etc. In 1972, he developed the Sinclair Executive pocket calculator, followed by several other calculator models. (See Calculator Chronology.)
In 1978, he developed the XIV microcomputer (board system) and in January 1980 the ZX-80 microcomputer, a small Z-80 based computer that sold for $199 plus $5 shipping. It was advertised in 1980 as the first computer under $200. The ZX-80 used the Z80A microprocessor chip, came with a touch sensitive membrane keyboard, and could interface with a TV set for showing its 32 character, 24-line display.
The ZX-80 was only 6-1/2 inches wide by 8-1/2 inches long by 1-1/2 inches deep. It came with 4K integer BASIC, a 128 page manual, and a catalog of 27 different program cassettes available. It was available in the U.S. from Sinclair Research, Ltd., of Wallingford, Connecticut. Sinclair also had offices in Boston, Massachusetts.
Clive Sinclair's next model was the ZX-81, which sold for under $100. Sinclair's English company made an agreement with Timex in the United States, which gave Timex the rights to distribute the ZX-81 in the U.S. under the brand name "Timex-Sinclair."
Clive Sinclair also designed a computer in 1984 called the QL computer and later in 1985, the "Spectrum+ microcomputers." Sinclair became Sir Clive Sinclair when he was knighted by the Queen for his achievements in the English computer industry.
(For information and a photographic history of the Sinclair products, including radios and electronic test equipment, see Enrico Tedeschi's book "Sinclair Archeology," Hove Books, 54 Easthill Drive, Portslade, Brighton, BN41 2FD, U.K.)
Elmer Sperry was a brilliant inventor, organizer and business entrepreneur. He founded many companies, including the Sperry Gyroscope Company, which later became part of the Sperry Rand and the Remington companies, and ultimately part of the giant computer company UNISYS.
George Stibitz (1904-1995)(photo)
George Stibitz was born in York, Pennsylvania in 1904. He did his under- graduate work at Denison University in Granville, Ohio. In 1927, he graduated from Union College, Schenectady, New York, with an M.S. degree. He received his Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Cornell University in 1930.
George Stibitz worked for Bell Labs from 1930 to 1941. His inventions include an electrical device for finding root polynomials, a tone generator and computing equipment. He constructed a breadboard digital calculator in 1937, which he named "Model K"for Kitchen table. In April 1939, George Stibitz and Samuel B. Williams began construction of a complex calculating machine.
The electromagnetic machine was composed of about 450 relays, a keyboard and a teletype machine. Stibitz built the machine for Bell Labs, and it became known as the Bell Labs Model 1 Complex Calculator. It was not an electronic digital computer, nor a programmable calculator. However, it could be operated remotely, through the telephone system.
The Model 1 was completed in November 1939 at a cost of about $20,000. Stibitz went on to build other devices for the military during World War II. Bell Labs did not pursue the development or marketing of the Model 1 design. From about 1941 to 1945, George Stibitz worked as a technical aid at the National Defense Research Committee. In 1943, he did work on the Model 2 general purpose computer. The Model 2 was one of the first programmable computers and utilized paper tape. It was installed at Bell Labs and was used for data interpolation.
Another computer, the Model 3, was nicknamed "the baby"since its trouble alarm often went off during the night and woke people up. Improvements were made to the Model 3 which resulted in the Model 4 computer. In around 1945, Stibitz and his team worked on two Model 5 computers: one was sent to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at Langley Field, Virginia and the other was sent to the Army ballistics center at Aberdeen.
In 1964 he joined the faculty of Dartmouth and did research in the area of biomedicine, applying his computer systems development knowledge. He stayed with Dartmouth until 1983. He retired as professor emeritus of physiology at the medical school of Dartmouth.
While an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cliff Stoll detected a 75 cent error in a computer generated calculation which eventually led him to conclude there was an intruder in his computer system. He began an elaborate trace of the hacker, called "Hunter," and eventually found the source. Hunter was computer hacker, responsible for breaking into many U.S. Government computers. The fascinating story is described in detail in Stoll's book "Cuckoo's Egg,: published in 1989 by Simon & Schuster. Clifford Stoll has given talks on computer security to the U.S. Senate, the FBI, the CIA, and the NSA.
Ivan Sutherland (illustration)
While a student at MIT, Ivan Sutherland developed "Sketchpad," a conversational computer graphics system, utilizing a console and a light pen. It could be used to draw graphic images on a computer screen and was the first interactive computer graphics program. It is also probably the first computer aided design (CAD) type workstation.
Sketchpad was developed by Sutherland as part of his doctoral dissertation. Sketchpad was innovative and years ahead of its time. A description of its operation was published by Ted Nelson in his book "The Home Computer Revolution" in 1977. Sutherland later worked as Director of ARPA's Office of Information Processing Techniques (OIPT) from about 1962 to June 1966.
Robert Taylor received his masters degree in psychoacoustics from the University of Texas. He worked from 1962 to 1965 as head of a NASA program in its Office of Advanced Research and Technology. This program included funding research in manned-flight control systems related work, displays, and simulation technology at NASA centers and at universities. This program, run by Taylor, also funded early research done by Dr. Douglas Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute.
In 1962, Taylor was approached by J.C.R. Licklider of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) who was also involved with funding computer research and asked Taylor to participate on a committee to coordinate and share information. (See also ARPA History)
In 1965, Ivan Sutherland asked Robert Taylor to come to ARPA to act as deputy director of ARPA's Office of Information Processing Techniques (IPTO). Taylor took over as director of IPTO when Sutherland left in 1966. Taylor was instrumental in the development of the ARPANET which later grew into INTERNET, the worldwide network of computer systems and networks.
During the early 1940's, Frederick Terman, was head of the Electrical Engineering Department at Stanford, and later became head of the Harvard Radio Research Laboratory. Terman was also one of the major forces behind the development of high tech industry and the growth of Silicon Valley.
Professor Terman earned his Ph.D. at MIT under the guidance of Vannevar Bush. Terman accepted a faculty position at MIT, but ended up staying in Palo Alto, California, where he was raised, because of the benefits of the milder climate.
Terman also played a large role in encouraging students Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett to pursue their electrical engineering degrees and research. The two later went on to form Hewlett-Packard Company. Professor Terman is often considered one of the "founders" of Silicon Valley.
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
Tesla, a Serbian by origin, was born in Croatia, and later became a U.S. citizen. Tesla excelled at languages, including Slavic dialects, English, French, German, and Italian, as well as mathematics. Tesla is known for his experiments with alternating current ("AC"). Tesla worked for one of Edison's electric companies, but was unable to convince Edison that AC was a better source of electric current than Edison's DC (direct current).
In 1887, Tesla opened his own company the "Tesla Electric Company." In 1888, he patented the rotating field motor and sold it to George Westinghouse. From 1887 to 1891 he applied for and was granted forty patents. Tesla was part of the battle between Thomas Edison's Edison General Electric and George Westinghouse' Company over the DC vs. AC methods of supplying electricity to America. Among Tesla's inventions were the Tesla Coil, wireless transmission, and a generator for high-frequency currents. He also developed radio-controlled robotics devices and discussed theories for radio-guided missiles long before they became feasible.
In 1903, Tesla filed for patents which contained the basic principles of the logical circuitry for "AND" gates later used in transistors and computer devices. Tesla's early contributions to the field of early electronic computing were not recognized for many years. For further information, see the excellent book "Tesla: Man Out of Time," Margaret Cheny, Dorset Press, 1989.
Chuck Thacker was one of the leading designers of the Alto Computer at Xerox PARC.
In 1969, Ken Thompson, a software developer at Bell Labs, developed the Unix operating system for the DEC PDP-7. Later, Thompson worked with Dennis Ritchie, another software developer who had written the C language, to improve Unix. In 1973, Unix was rewritten in C, to improve it and make it more transportable to other systems.
BYTE Magazine, August 1983
Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) (photo)
Alan Turing was born in London, England. Turing, a genius at mathematics, taught himself to read at age six. By age 15, he had received several mathematics awards and was reading Einstein's theories with great interest. In 1937, at age twenty-five, he published his paper entitled: "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs-problem." He described how a machine could be developed to do computation. His theoretical computer was called the Turing Machine.
During World War II, Turing worked for British Intelligence at Bletchley Park as part of a top secret project designing a machine to break the codes generated by the German High Command. The German device used was called ENIGMA, and utilized wheels which rotated into different positions creating a code that was extremely difficult to break. The machine developed at Bletchley by Turing and others was called "the bombe" which was an electromechanical relay machine. The bombe helped determine the rotor positions of the ENIGMA and led to a breaking of German coded messages.
Alan M. Turing
Brief Chronological Summary
DATE - TECHNICAL RESEARCH AND ACHIEVEMENTS
Enters Kings College at Cambridge as a mathematics scholar.
Publishes "On Computable Numbers," and discusses the concept of a Universal Machine ("Turing Machine"), and tests for determining whether a machine could be said to be intelligent ("Turing Test").
Awarded his doctoral degree from Princeton University on the "System of Logic Based on Ordinals."
Accepted a fellowship at Kings College in England.
Served with the British Department of Communications, working at the top secret codebreaking facility at Bletchley Park, England. Turing worked on problems relating to breaking the German Enigma codes. Turing was one of the chief developers of the "bombe" used to break these codes. (See photo of American version of the Bombe)
Becomes a member of the Scientific Civil Service.
Joins the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Begins construction of an electronic
Computer, the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine). He left the NPL in 1948 when the
ACE project became tied up in bureaucracy.
1948-1949 - Appointed to a Readership position at Manchester University, and worked with F.C. Williams and T. Kilburn, computer pioneers.
1951 - Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.(photo)
Von Neumann was born in Budapest, Hungary. He made significant contributions to the fields of quantum physics, logic, mathematics and high speed computing machines. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics in 1926, in Budapest. In 1933, he was appointed professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Studies. Von Neumann discussed computing theories with J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, creators of the ENIAC, in 1944.
In June 1945, von Neumann wrote a paper entitled "First Draft of a Report on EDVAC" and the stored program concept. The EDVAC was a serial binary machine which provided about 100 times the internal memory of the ENIAC. Von Neumann also worked on the creation of the IAS computer at the Institute for Advanced Studies and his theories had a significant impact on the development of early computers. He was known for his ability to perform incredible mental calculations and for his written papers on the potential of computing machines.
Von Neumann's theories formed the guidelines for many other computer designers to follow. Those machines constructed along these guidelines were often referred to as "von Neumann Machines." (Note: The original June 30, 1945 EDVAC paper is reprinted in the IEEE "Annals of the History of Computing" magazine, Volume 15, Number 4, 1993, page 28.)
Ted Waitt is the founder of Gateway 2000, Inc., a highly successful personal computer manufacturer. In 1985, Ted Waitt founded the TICP Network, a company he established to provide Texas Instruments personal computer owners with upgrades and accessories. By 1987, sales had reached $1.5 million.
By 1990, Waitt had changed the name to Gateway 2000, and employed 185 people. Gateway 2000 utilizes mail order and telephone orders as its cornerstone. In 1990, Gateway was producing and shipping 225 PCs per day.
By 1992, Gateway's sales had exceeded $1 billion.
Gateway is also known for producing the subnotebook computer called the Gateway Handbook in 1992. It weighed only 2.9 pounds.
In 1996, Gateway announced a combination Pentium PC and television, including a wireless keyboard and mouse, and digital sound system. This new machine is called the Destination.
Gateway's overall sales for 1996 exceeded $3 billion.
(Information courtesy of Wang, Getronics)
An Wang was born in Shanghai, China on February 7, 1920. The son of a schoolteacher, and one of five children, he graduated first in his class from Chiao Tung University, considered to be the M.I.T. of China. He came to the United States in 1945 to study applied physics at Harvard University. He received his M.S. in 1946 and his Ph.D. in 1948. After graduation, he performed postdoctoral work in the Harvard Computational Laboratory.
At the age of 28, Dr. Wang gained recognition from the scientific community following his invention of magnetic core technology, which established the principle of magnetic storage — heralding the birth of the modern computer industry.
He founded Wang Laboratories on June 22, 1951 to develop specialty electronic and digital equipment. On June 30, 1955, he incorporated the company and became the first president and treasurer of Wang Laboratories, Inc.
The next several years were busy ones for Wang Laboratories. Its line of products expanded to include electronic counters, machine tool controls, block-tape readers, encoders and telecoder generators. In 1962 Wang developed the first electronic justifying typesetter system, the LINASEC.
In 1965, Dr. Wang introduced a desktop computer named LOCI. This forerunner of the Wang electronic desk calculator used a keyboard resembling that of an adding machine, but offered the user the unique feature of generating natural logarithms with a single stroke. Wang programmable calculators rapidly became the industry standard.
As the 1970s began, Dr. Wang recognized that customers needed products that could accomplish two major office tasks – data processing and word processing. Wang’s first word processing product, an electronically controlled dual cassette typing system called the 1200, was announced in 1971. Wang entered the data processing market in 1971 with the introduction of the 2200 series, a family of small business computers.
In 1976, the company introduced the Wang Word Processing System (WPS), a CRT-based word processor with disk storage for four thousand pages and a 350 word-per-minute letter quality printer. The break-through Wang Word Processing System brought the power of computing to the office desktop.
In 1977, Wang expanded its product line with the introduction of the VS, a computer system based on virtual storage technology offering mainframe computing capabilities. Responding to user needs, Wang also incorporated word processing capabilities into the VS, resulting in the first system in the industry to achieve this integration.
By June 1978, Wang was the largest worldwide supplier of small business computers in North America, and the largest worldwide supplier of CRT-based word processing systems. As the company entered the 80s, it launched the Office Information Systems (OIS) product line. The OIS product line was designed around the Wang concept of distributed intelligence – putting easy to use computer technology at the fingertips of the user for maximum system effectiveness.
Wang Laboratories was the first company to define a strategy for the implementation of computer technology in a business environment. This strategy was based on the development and application of six technologies: data processing, word processing, image processing; voice processing; networking, and, most importantly — human factors — applying technology in a way that was easy to use and learn.
In the mid-1980s gains in chip technology caused the industry to shift away from minicomputer and proprietary systems like Wang’s to smaller PCs or open systems that could accommodate many vendors’ technologies.
When Dr. Wang, still chairman, became terminally ill with cancer, he hired Richard Miller as president and chief operating officer in August 1989.
Dr. An Wang was awarded the American Electronics Association’s 1948 Medal of Achievement. Presented annually by the AEA, the medal is the highest award conferred by the electronics and information technology industries.
Forbes magazine estimated Dr. Wang’s worth at $1.6 billion, ranking him as the fifth richest American in 1984. But the inventor and entrepreneur was generous with his wealth. He and his wife Lorraine donated $4 million dollars to save the aging Metropolitan Center in Boston, later renamed the Wang Center for The Performing Arts.
Other major contributions included gifts of $4 million to Harvard University, $1 million to Wellesley College, donations totaling $2.3 million in computer equipment to Boston schools, creation of the $6 million Wang Institute of Graduate Studies, the construction of a $15 million factory in Boston’s Chinatown to provide employment for 300 local residents, and multiple donations to the ambulatory care center at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Dr. Wang was also a member of the board of directors of the Bank of Boston and the Massachusetts Board of Regents. He was president and trustee of the Wang Institute of Graduate Studies and was a trustee of Northeastern University and the Museum of Science of Boston. He was elected an overseer of Harvard University in 1980.
In 1988 Dr. Wang was voted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. At the time, he was one of only 69 members. The holder of 40 patents and 23 honorary degrees, Dr. Wang was recognized as one of the pioneering giants of the computer industry. Dr. Wang died on Saturday March 24, 1990 at the age of 70. He left his wife Lorraine, two sons and a daughter.
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. (left) and Thomas J. Watson, Sr. (right)
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. was born in 1914 and was the chief executive officer of IBM from 1956 to 1971.
He was instrumental in leading the company into the computer business and making it the largest computer company in the world. His vision and recognition of the importance of IBM's entrance into the high technology world of computers was a major factor in the company's growth from the mid 1950's to the 1970's.
Time Magazine featured Thomas Watson, Jr. on the cover of its March 28, 1955 issue, with the caption "IBM's Thomas J. Watson, Jr., Clink. Clank. Think." "Think" was one of the mottos of IBM and also the title of a monthly IBM publication started by Thomas J. Watson, Sr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr.'s relationship with his father, his experiences and challenges in running IBM are well described in his book "Father, Son & Co." with Peter Petre (Bantam Books, 1990). (Information courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation)
Thomas J. Watson, Sr. (1874-1956)(photo)
Thomas J. Watson, Sr., an American industrialist and businessman, was born in Campbell, New York. From 1896 to 1914, Watson worked for National Cash Register ("NCR") under its president and founder, John Henry Patterson. Patterson was a very demanding and somewhat eccentric chief executive. Watson was an exceptional salesman and worked his way up from sales to management.
Watson admired Patterson's higher abilities and took some of what he learned from Patterson and applied it on his next job.
In May 1914, Watson was hired as president of the Computing-Tabulating- Recording Company (CTR). (See CTR)
Watson's knowledge of marketing and how to manage a sales force was a major positive influence in the growth of his company. In 1924, he changed the name of his company from CTR to International Business Machines Corporation ("IBM").
Watson headed IBM from 1914 to 1956, during which time it grew from a nearly bankrupt company with 1,200 employees to an international business giant with over a hundred thousand employees. CTR's original product line included scales, time clocks and tabulating machines. The CTR sales force, under Watson's direction, became one of the best sales teams in the business world. In 1934, Thomas Watson, Sr., executive at IBM, declared the highest paid executive in the nation; annual salary $364,432.
Watson's technique of leasing machines and supplying service was a more successful method than selling machines outright. This caused CTR's (and later IBM's) customer base to grow and remain connected to IBM. It wasn't until his son, Thomas Watson, Jr., became president of IBM in 1952, that IBM really poured its energies into the electronics and computer field. The Remington Rand UNIVAC announced in 1951 was the first commercially available business computer. This shocked IBM into re-focusing its efforts on this new industry.
IBM announced its Model 604 Electronic Calculating Punch machine in 1948. It was slow, but had the advantage of being compatible with existing IBM equipment that its customers had. Even after turning over the presidency of IBM to his son, Thomas J. Watson, Sr., remained very active in other areas, including his roles as trustee of Columbia University and Lafayette College, International Commissioner of Boy Scouts, member of the Carnegie Fund, and his directorship in three other corporations. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. died in 1956.
Norbert Weiner (1874-1964)
Norbert Weiner was a brilliant mathematician who, as early as the 1930's, advocated the use of digital rather than analog computers. Norbert Weiner is often credited with inventing the study of communication and control mechanisms in machines and human beings. Norbert Weiner and A. Rosenblueth later called this science "Cybernetics," from the Greek word Kubernos, meaning pilot.
Norbert Weiner published his book "Cybernetics" in 1948. He was also very involved in early computing research, and gave lectures on computers and artificial intelligence. He had many contacts with other mathematicians and computer pioneers of the time, including Vannevar Bush and John von Neumann.
George Westinghouse (1846-1914)(photo)
George Westinghouse was born in New York in 1846. He was an American inventor and manufacturer. He also introduced alternating current (AC) electrical power transmission. Westinghouse perfected the air brake and patented hundreds of inventions, organized over 50 companies, and was president of over 30 corporations. In 1886, he founded Westinghouse Electric Company which produces a wide variety of products including early computer systems.
In 1885, George Westinghouse and William Stanley developed a practical transformer for electrical networks. In 1886, George Westinghouse was granted a patent for his "System of Electrical Distribution." That same year, the first commercial alternating-current generating station went into operation in Buffalo, New York.
In 1889, Westinghouse Electric was renamed Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company. In 1895, it built generators for the first major alternating-current powerplant at Niagara Falls.
In 1920, Westinghouse's radio station, KDKA, transmitted the results of the Harding-Cox presidential election, the first scheduled radio broadcast. In 1928, Westinghouse developed the first electronic television camera tube.
From the 1920's onward, Westinghouse technical researchers and laboratories were involved in a wide range of technical advancements and achievements, including a photoelectric cell (1925), the electric-eye (1926), first demonstration of television (1923), first industrial atom smasher (1937), first long-range ground radar (1939), introduced the ANACOM analog computer (1948), first atomic engine (Nautilus submarine prototype) (1953), established first computer controlled teletype network the "Tele-Computer Center," first fully computer controlled transit system (Bay Area Rapid Transit in San Francisco) (1968), supplied television cameras used on the moon (1969), first watt-hour meter using microprocessor technology (1978), integration of Westinghouse radar into air traffic control system (1985).
Westinghouse entered the process control computer business in 1958. In 1970, Westinghouse entered the minicomputer business with the establishment of a new computer division under W. Marshall Britain. The Westinghouse minicomputer was a modified version of its earlier Prodac 2000, and was designed to have 4,000 word core memory and a 16-bit word length. In 1976, Westinghouse installed a W2500 computer system at the Northrop Corporation's aircraft division plant in Hawthorn, California.
The W2500 had 30 terminals to control the operation of 30 machine tools to produce airframe structural parts for use in aircraft assembly. Westinghouse stopped producing televisions and radios in 1972.
In 1974, Westinghouse sold off its major appliance business, and in 1983, acquired Unimation, Inc., one of the world's leading robot manufacturers at that time. Unimation was sold some years later. George Westinghouse headed the Westinghouse company until 1909.
Maurice Wilkes was the director of the Mathematical Laboratory at Cambridge from 1945. He left Cambridge in 1980, retiring as Professor Emeritus of Computer Technology. Maurice Wilkes was highly instrumental in the development of stored program computers. Wilkes led the team at Cambridge that developed the "Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator" (EDSAC).
The EDSAC first became operational in May 1949. He also made major contributions to the field of programming for stored program computers, participated in the development of time sharing systems and produced a number of influential books and other materials. He has received numerous awards for his many achievements, including the Harry Goode Award from the American Federation of Information Processing Societies.
Wilkes' publications include:
-Preparation of Programs for an Electronic Digital Computer (1951)
-Automatic Digital Computers (1956)
-A Short Introduction to Numerical Analysis (1966)
-Time-Sharing Computer Systems (1966)
F. C. Williams (1911-1977)
Professor Frederick Calland Williams was the inventor of the cathode ray tube memory device that came to be known as the "Williams Tube." In 1946, Williams worked at the Telecommunications Research Establishment at Malvern, England. He conducted research into the use of cathode ray tube technology for the storage of electrical impulses. In 1947, Williams joined the Electro-Technics Department, Manchester University, England.
The Williams Tube memory devices were successfully used in the Manchester Mark I computer in 1948. The Williams Tube was later licensed to IBM for its 701 and 702 computers. Williams Tubes were also used by developers at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. By 1954, magnetic-core memories had replaced the use of Williams Tube memory in computer systems. Prior to that time, the Williams Tube was considered one of the major improvements in memory storage technology.
Co-founder of Apple Computer company.
Steve Jobs (then age 21) and Steve Wozniak (then age 26) built and marketed the Apple I computer.
Wozniak and Jobs formed the Apple Computer Company on April Fool's day.
The Apple I debuts at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California. In May, Jobs
sells his VW and Wozniak sells his Hewlett-Packard programmable calculator to raise $1,350
to finance production of the Apple I boards.
Steve Jobs uses his parents' garage to build the first machines. The Apple I computer is
announced at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California. In July, the Apple
I computer board sells for $666.66.
By the end of 1976, ten retail stores were marketing the Apple I computers. Steve Jobs and
Steve Wozniak attended the Atlantic City Computer Convention.
In January 1977, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Armas C. "Mark" Markkula incorporate the
"Apple Computer" company. Markkula was a former marketing manager at Intel and
Fairchild Semiconductor, who added significant business expertise to the Jobs and Wozniak
Team. Apple production moves from Steve Job's garage to a building in Stevens Creek Boulevard, Cupertino, California. Mike Scott becomes president of Apple. In April 1977, Rob Janoff, art director for Regis McKenna Advertising, designs the Apple Logo. That same month, the Apple II computer is unveiled at the West Coast Computer Fair.
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak unveiled the Apple II computer in April 1977. It came standard with 48k memory and sold for $1,298. The Apple II was the first personal computer to generate color graphics. The Apple II included a keyboard, power supply and attractive case.
The Apple II+ computer is announced, with 48K memory.
Apple Computer goes public in December 1980. An initial offering of 4.6 million shares of Apple common stock sell for $22 per share. Every share is bought within minutes of offering, making it the largest public offering since Ford went public in 1956.
Apple employees numbered over 1,000.
Apple Computer announced the Apple III computer in September.
Apple Computer had an installed base of 300,000 Apple II computers. Apple Computer has about 3,000 Apple dealers worldwide. Apple reorganizes. Mike Markkula replaces MikeScott as president; Steve Jobs succeeds Markkula as chairman and Mike Scott becomes vice-president. By November 1981, Apple employees number 2,500 and the Apple II computer's installed base exceeds 300,000 units.
1982 (December) Apple Computer becomes the first personal computer company to reach $1 billion in annual sales.
John Sculley joined Apple Computer in April 1983 as its 4,450th employee. Sculley was, at 44, one of the oldest employees at Apple, where the average age was 27. Sculley, formerly president of Pepsi-Cola, takes over the presidency of Apple.
Apple Computer enters the Fortune 500 at number 411 in under five years. Apple II computers will be given to about 10,000 California schools by September this year. The Apple III+ computer is announced.
The Apple IIe (priced at $1,395) and the Lisa (priced at $9,995) are introduced. The Lisa computer utilizes 32 bit architecture.
Apple announces the Macintosh. It comes standard with 128k memory and sells for $2,495. Apple Computer runs its controversial "1984, Big Brother" commercial during the Superbowl
broadcast announcing the Apple Macintosh computer (January).
Apple Computer wins copyright infringement suit against Franklin Computer, setting a
precedent for PC software protection. (April) Apple Computer announces the Apple IIc (selling for $1,295) and discontinues the
By November, Apple has sold its two millionth Apple II.
In February, Jobs and Wozniak receive the National Technology Medal from President
Ronald Reagan at the White House.
In February, 1985, Steve Wozniak resigned from Apple Computer to start a new company
to develop products in the home video area.
In September 1985, Steve Jobs leaves Apple to form a new computer company, Next
Computers. (Some information courtesy of Apple Computer.)
Apple Computer Bibliography
Professor Dr. Heinz Zemanek of Austria, is one of the early computer pioneers and one of the most distinguished computer scientists in Europe. He directed early computer work at the Institut fur Niederfrequenztechnik of the Institute of Technology in Vienna.
Dr. Zemanek directed the development of early computers such as the URR-1 (Universalrechenmachine 1), the LRR-1, and a transistorized computer called the "Mailufterl" ("little May Breeze") (1956-1959). Dr. Zemanek received the IEEE's Computer Pioneer Award in 1985 for his development of the Mailufterl, the first Austrian computer.(photo)
Dr. Konrad Zuse's pioneering work in the development of the computer was not widely known before 1965 when descriptions of his work were translated into English. His first computers pre-dated those built by Howard Aiken, John V. Atanasoff, and J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly's ENIAC. His first computers were called V1, V2, and V3 (V for "Versuchsmodell" German for experimental model). Later he changed the V to a Z so as not be confused with Germany's V rockets.
Konrad Zuse, a brilliant engineer and computer pioneer, was born in Berlin, Germany. He received his construction engineering degree from the Technische Hochschule Berlin-Charlottenburg in 1935.
In 1936, Konrad Zuse applied for a patent on his mechanical memory design. He developed his first calculating machine, the Z1 (using mechanical technology), in 1938. In 1939, Konrad Zuse completed the Z2 machine. In 1941, Konrad Zuse completed his Z3 computer which used telephone relays. The Z3 could convert decimal to binary and back again.
The Z3 used binary numbers and floating point arithmetic. The Z3 also utilized a punched film for program input. Zuse's Z3, completed in 1941, was the first automatic, program-controlled, fully functional, general purpose digital computer.
In 1942-1943, Konrad Zuse developed two special computers for guidance systems, S1 and S2. From 1942 through 1945, Zuse developed the Z4 computer. Zuse also developed the first high-level language for computers which he called "Plankalkul."
The Z1, Z2 and Z3 computers were destroyed in the war. The Z4 computer which Zuse had partially completed was salvaged. The Z4 occupied 160 square feet, contained 2,200 relays, used punched tape.
The Z4 was used to solve universal scientific problems. The Z4 computer was (in 1950) installed at the Eidgenossisch Technische Hochschule (ETH), in Zurich, Switzerland. The Z5 was a general purpose computer used for optical computations.
It contained 2,500 relays and was installed at Fa. Leitz in Wetzlar, Optical Works. Zuse was somewhat isolated from other developments in the computing field and his contributions were not recognized until sometime after World War II.
In 1949, Zuse formed his own company called ZUSE KG. He produced a variety of other computers, such as the Z11 relay computer and the Z22 (vacuum tube based) and Z23 (transistor based). ZUSE KG company was absorbed by Siemens AG in 1969. Among the many other devices built by Konrad Zuse are the Z11, Z25, Z31, Z43, and the Z64 (a plotter).
Konrad Zuse has received a number of distinguished awards, including a total of eight honorary doctorate awards, including honorary Dr. of Technology (Technical University Berlin, 1957), Werner von Siemens-Ring (1964); Harry Goode Medal (American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1965); German Diesel Medal (1969); Austrian Exner Medal (1969); two honorary professor titles (University of Gottingen and University of Stettin/Polen) and others. (Information courtesy of the Office of Dr. Konrad Zuse)
Vladimir Zworykin was born in Murom, Russia. In 1912, he graduated from the Petrograd Institute of Technology. Zworykin came to the U.S. in 1919 and went to work for the radio tube division of Westinghouse Electric Company in 1920. He headed up a team that developed the Iconoscope, which converted light into electrical signals. He also contributed to the development of the Kinescope, which converted electronic signals into patterns that could be seen on a screen.
He applied for a patent on the Iconoscope in December 1929. The Iconoscope and Kinescope made modern television practical. Zworykin also did early developmental work on the electron microscope. In 1929, Zworykin became director of electronics research for the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). In 1947, he was promoted to a vice- president position.
Zworykin is best known for his contribution to the technology of television, which eventually made possible the use of video display tubes for computers. While working at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, Zworykin proposed using a computer as a diagnostic tool. A pilot project was undertaken using an RCA 501 computer to compile the symptoms associated with over 100 hematological diseases.
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