Lexikon's History of Computing

* * * Master Chronology of Events * * *

Historical highlights in the world of calculating and computing, from
ancient times up to the late 20th Century.
(After 1997, only a few highlights are included.)

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About Dates Used in this Encyclopedia

3,000-4,000 B.C.E. (date approximate)

Ancient Egyptians developed and used a system of picture language, which we call "hieroglyphics."

The ancient Sumerians developed and used a writing system using wedged shaped symbols, called "cuneiform."

3,000 B.C.E.

Early abacus is used in Babylonia. "Abacus" comes from the Semitic word for dust. The most primitive version of the abacus was a wooden tablet which was sprinkled with fine sand. Numerals were then written in the sand using a stylus.

2,500-3,000 B.C

Ancient Egyptians used papyrus sheets to keep written records.

Ancient Japanese use an abacus called a "soroban."

The ancient Chinese use an abacus type device called a "Suan Pan."

Russians use an abacus device called a "tschoty."

1,800 B.C.E.

Evidence of the early use of algorithms by Babylonian mathematicians.

1,500 B.C.E.

The Ancient Semites develop an alphabet.

600 B.C.E.

The Assyrians and Babylonians established libraries, including the Royal Library at Ninevah.

500-1,000 B.C.E.

Early abacus using bead and wire is used in ancient Egypt.

The abacus is used in ancient China.

450 B.C.E.

The abacus is used in Asia and in Greece.

322 B.C.E.

Aristotle made an early attempt to bring together all existing knowledge in a series of books.

300 B.C.E.

Numerals are invented by the Hindus.

200 B.C.E.

Parchment is developed in western Asia.

63 B.C.E.

A Roman slave, Marcus Tullius Tiro, invents a system of shorthand.

70 A.D.

The work entitled "Natural History" is written by Pliny the Elder. (This remains one of the oldest written reference works in existence.)

105 A.D.

Paper and ink are used by the Chinese. Early forms of block printing are used to print wood-carved characters onto paper.

200 A.D.

A computing tray ("Saun-pan") is used in ancient China. The Japanese use a computing tray ("Soroban").

600 AD - 700 A.D.

Wood block printing is developed in China. Early printing was done on paper rolls. Later the "codex" format was used. A "codex" was a series of large manuscript sheets folded together and bound between hard covers. The codex was the forerunner of the modern book design.

800 A.D.

The Arabs adopted our present numbering system from India.

868

The oldest known block-printed book, "The Diamond Sutra," is printed.

1000 A.D.

Pope Sylvester II develops improvements to the abacus.

1045 A.D.

A chinese printer, Pi Scheng, invents moveable clay type.

1202

Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci introduces Arabic numerals to Europe.

1271

Marco Polo makes his journey to China. He returns to Italy in 1295. In 1298 he begins dictating his memoirs.

1400

Europeans use wooden block printing.

1440-1450

Johannes Gutenberg introduces his printing press machine which utilized moveable metal type.

1453 -1456

Johannes Gutenberg and Johannes Fust print the 42 line bible. Each column of the printed text had 42 lines of type. It took about 5 years to print 200 copies.

1466

Joann Mentel prints the first German bible at Strasbourg.

1470

First printing press in France is set up at Sorbonne, Paris.

1475

The first book printed in English, "Recuyell of the Hystoryes of Troye," was printed in Bruges, Belgium by William Caxton, an Englishman. Caxton also printed the first edition of "Canterbury Tales."

1500?

Italian printer Aldus Manutius (1450-1515) develops "italic" type face.

1539

The first printing press in the Western Hemisphere begins operating in Mexico City. It was established by an Italian printer, Giovanni Paoli (Juan Pablos). Back to Shortcuts

1600

William Gilbert, an English physician, publishes a book on static electricity.

1614

John Napier, a Scottish mathematician, invents the use of logarithms and develops a process of using rods (later called "Napier's bones") for mathematical calculations.

1620

Edmund Gunter develops the Gunter Scale, based on Napier's logarithms.

1623

Wilhelm Schickard, a German mathematician and clergyman, designed and built a mechanism which could add, subtract, multiply and divide. Schickard's machine was similar in operation to the slide rule but also incorporated a set of metal wheels that performed the arithmetical operations. Schickard called his device a "calculator-clock."

1632

The Reverend William Oughtred develops an early slide rule and a circular slide rule.

1639

Stephen Daye sets up the first printing press in the American Colonies, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1642

Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician and philosopher, developed a calculator called the "Arithmatique" or "Pascaline." Pascal's device could handle numbers up to 999,999.999. Pascal's device was also called the "numerical wheel calculator."

1646

First known English language use of the word "computer" found in writings of Sir Thomas Browne. Browne defined "computers" as persons who reckoned the passage of time through the making up of calendars. Sir Thomas Browne, an English physician, uses the word "electricity" for the first time.

1665

The first English newspaper, "The London Gazette," is published.

1671

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz invents a machine to perform multiplication, division and extraction of square roots. This device, called the "Leibnitz Wheel" could only handle simple arithmetical operations and never became widely used. Leibnitz also invents device called "Stepped-Reckoner."

1702

The London "Daily Courant" becomes the first daily English newspaper printed.

1704

The "Boston News-Letter", the first American newspaper to last more than one issue is published in the Colonies.

1714

Queene Anne of England issues the first typewriter patent to Henry Mill. However, Mill was never able to develop a working model for his design.

1741

The "American Magazine," the first American published magazine is printed in Philadelphia.

1752

Benjamin Franklin flies a kite to prove that lightning is electricity.

1755

One of the first dictionaries of the English language is published by Samuel Johnson.

1775

Charles, 3rd Earl Stanhope, builds an early calculating machine.

1786

Lugi Galvani conducts experiments in electrophysiology.

1801

Joseph Marie Jacquard develops the first punch-card machine.

1803

The Fourdrinier brothers, two Englishmen, develop a machine to make paper.

1814

The cylinder press is developed.

1819

Hans Christian Oersted discovers electromagnetism.

1820

Charles Xavier Thomas of Colmar, Alsace, France, develops a complete hand-operated mechanical calculator. By 1865, 500 of these devices were made.

1822

Charles Babbage develops the "Difference Engine" concept.

1826

Thomas Johann Seebeck discovers thermoelectricity, the principle that heat can produce electricity.

1828

Eliphalet Remington manufactures the first successful cast-steel drilled rifle barrel in the U.S. Remington founds the "Remington Arms Company. Remington later merges with Rand to form Remington Rand Company.

1828

Noah Webster published the first comprehensive American dictionary.

1826-1839

One of the first photographic processes is developed by Joseph Niepce and Louis Daguerre of France.

1831

Michael Faraday, an English physicist, discovers that moving a magnet through a coil produces an electric current in that coil. American scientist, Joseph Henry, makes similar discovery this same year.

1833

Charles Babbage develops the "Analytical Engine" design. The Analytical Engine was designed to use punched cards and perform automatic calculations. Babbage lost support for this project and he was never able to actually build the device.

1834c

August Ada, Countess of Lovelace, wrote descriptions of Charles Babbage's computer design that were later published.

1837

Samuel Morse develops "Morse Code".

1839

William Burk conceives an early typewriter.

1841

General L. F. Menebrea writes about Charles Baggage's machine designs.

1845

The first telegraph message is sent from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore. Message: "What hath God Wrought?"

1846

Richard Hoe, an American printer, invents the rotary press. His early presses could print 8,000 sheets per hour.

1850c

John Jones of Clyde, New York, develops the first mechanical typewriter. It was produced in Rochester, New York by the Rochester Novelty Works from 1852 to 1853. Between 150 and 300 were made before the factory was destroyed by fire. It had the capability to do proportional spacing but was far too slow to be very practical.

1850

Amedee Mannheim creates a slide rule with an improved scale arrangement, which becomes a popular feature in slide rules in later years. His design becomes known as the "Mannheim Slide Rule."

1850

D.D. Parmalee patents the first key-driven adding machine.

1852

William Fox Talbot, an Englishman, patents photoengraving.

1854

George Boole, an English mathematician, develops a revolutionary type of Algebra based on the numbers one and zero. This system is now referred to as Boolean Algebra. This was later found to be a very useful way of representing information in computers.

1855

George Schuetz builds a simplified version of Babbage's difference engine and exhibits it at the Paris exhibition.

1859

Moses Farmer lights his Salem, Massachusetts house by electric lamps containing a glowing platinum wire.

1865

William Bullock, an American printer, invents the high-speed, web-fed rotary press.

1867-1868

Christopher Sholes, a Milwaukee newspaper editor, developed the first effectively marketable mechanical typewriter.

1867

Paul Jablochkov, a Russian electrical engineer, used Arc lighting to light the streets of Paris.

1872

Thomas A. Edison invents a form of electric typewriter.

1872

Frank Baldwin designs an early calculator. He obtained a patent in 1875, for device with spring loaded pins, which was a major advancement at the time. This device was forerunner of the Monroe Calculator.

1873

E. Remington and Sons, sewing machine manufacturer and gunsmith, refined and marketed the typewriter designed by Sholes in 1868. The typewriter was called the "Remington Model 1."

1874

The Odhner was invented in 1874 by Swedish engineer W. T. Odhner. The Odhner machine was a rotary, crank-operated mechanical calculator based on the pinwheel principle. His successful design became the model for many other successful calculators which followed, such as the Friden, Brunsviga, and Marchant. He first produced the Odhner Model 1 Arithmometer around 1886. He obtained a patent on his machine in 1891. It was later mass produced in St. Petersburg, Russia. In 1926, it sold for about $300.

1876

Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.

1876

George Barnard Grant exhibits a gear-operated difference engine at the Philadelphia Centennial Fair.

1878

Sir William Crookes invents the Crookes Tube, which produces cathode rays.

1878

George Fuller, Professor of Engineering, Queen's College at Belfast, received a patent for his slide rule (British Patent No. 1044).

1878

Thomas Edison invents the phonograph.

1879

November 4, 1879, marks the first patent for a cash register. Filed by James and John Ritty.

1879

Thomas A. Edison works out a successful principle for an electric light. Edison makes the first successful carbon lamp.

1880s

Lord Kelvin (William Thompson) drafts plans for a differential analyzer but never completes a working model.

1880

Herman Hollerith, an American inventor, uses his tabulating machine to process the 1880 census data. Hollerith later forms a company to manufacture and sell the machine. Hollerith's company grew and merged with other companies to eventually become IBM. Hollerith used punched cards in his tabulating machine. These later became refined and came to be known as "IBM cards", or simply "punch cards."

1880c

Ramon Verea invents the first calculator capable of multiplying directly rather than by repeated addition.

1881

Edwin Thacher patents his slide rule (patent No. 249,117)

1881

James and John Ritty sell the first cash register patent to Jacob H. Eckert, who later organizes the National Manufacturing Company (later to become NCR, National Cash Register Company).

1883

Herman Hollerith is appointed assistant examiner in the U.S. Patent Office. He held this position until March 31, 1884.

1884

National Cash Register Company (NCR) records sales of 359 cash registers.

1884

The Institute for Electrical Engineers (IEE) is founded.

1884

Paul Nipkow invents a mechanical scanning disc, early video technology.

1884

Ottmar Merganthaler patents the linotype printing machine, which casts a full line of type in one piece of metal.

1885

NCR records sales of 650 cash register machines.

1886

The American Arithmometer Company markets the adding machines invented by William Seward Burroughs.

1886

Standard Typewriter Manufacturing Company is formed as a separate entity from E. Remington & Sons by the firm of Wykoff, Seamans, and Benedict.

1886

Ottmar Merganthaler of Hachtel, Germany, invents the first typesetting machine.

The first "linotype" machine was installed by the New York Tribune in July 1886.

1886

NCR records sales of over 1,000 cash register machines.

1887

Dorr Eugene Felt patents the "Comtometer", one of the first practical adding machines.

1888

John Patterson buys National Manufacturing Company and changes its name to National Cash Register Company (NCR).

1888

William S. Burroughs patents a printing adding machine.

1888

The first photoelectric cells are designed.

1888

World's first commercially manufactured dictating machine powered by a sewing machine treadle, with sound recorded on a beeswax and paraffin cylinder, was produced in Bridgeport, Connecticut by Colombia Graphophone Company, predecessor of Dictaphone Company.

1889

The automatic telephone switch is patented, making widespread telephone use possible.

1889

George Eastman develops a practical photographic film.

1889

Alexander Graham Bell devises a sorting machine for punch-coded census cards. However, the U.S. Census Bureau had already agreed to use the devices designed by Herman Hollerith.

1889

The Williams Typewriter Company, New York City, produces the Williams Typewriter.

1890

The Hollerith code is used to tabulate the 1890 census data.

1892

W. S. Burroughs develops a 90-key adding machine with a capacity of up to nine decimal digits.

1892

E. Remington & Sons merges with Standard Typewriter Company and takes the name Remington Standard Typewriter Company.

1894

Herman Hollerith patents a punched card system which utilized pneumatic pressure rather than electricity and air tubes rather than electrical wires. Although never built, it reflected his continued interest and development in the punched card systems and his application of knowledge from his railroad braking systems patents.

1894

Otto Steiger patents the "Millionaire," a direct multiplying calculator.

1894

Motion picture projectors come into use.

1895

Graphic Typewriter is produced.

1895

Gugliermo Marconi invents the wireless telegraph.

1895-1897

British physicist Joseph J. Thompson conducts a series of experiments which measure the properties of electrons in early vacuum tubes.

1896

(December 3) Herman Hollerith organizes the Tabulating Machine Company (TMC) with an initial capitalization of $100,000, made up of 1,000 shares of common stock with a par value of $100. Hollerith became general manager and held 502 shares. In 1911, he sells the company and it merges with others to eventually become the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM).

1896

Thomas J. Watson, Sr. takes a job as salesman for National Cash Register Company (NCR). (Watson later becomes president of IBM).

1896

NCR reports sale of its one hundred-thousandth (100,000th) cash register machine.

1896

German physicist Wilhelm K. Roentgen discovers X-Rays.

1896

French scientist, Jean B. Perrin, demonstrates that current flowing through a vacuum tube consists of negatively charged particles.

1896-1897

American Tolbert Lanston invents the Monotype typesetting machine

1898

Columbia Typewriter Manufacturing Company of New York, New York, produces the Columbia Bar-Lock Typewriter.

1900

The U.S. census of 1900 was tabulated with the help of Herman Hollerith and his machines. Over 311 tabulating machines, 20 automatic sorters and 1021 punches were involved. Over 120 million cards were run through the machines. It took several years to complete the census. It is estimated that Hollerith's machines saved the U.S. Government over 5 years in man-labor and over 1 million dollars. The 1900 census was probably the most accurate census taken up to that time.

1900

Gugliermo Marconi demonstrates radio transmission by sending a signal from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland, over 2,000 miles away. Vlademar Poulesen, a Danish electrical engineer, exhibited possibly the first magnetic recording device at the Paris Exhibition.

1901

Smith Premier Typewriter Company produces the Smith Premier Typewriter.

1901

American Writing Machine Company produces the Caligraph typewriter.

1901

Chicago Writing Machine Company produces the "Chicago" typewriter.

1901

Underwood Typewriter Company produces the Underwood Standard Typewriter.

1901

L. C. Smith & Brothers Typewriter Company of Syracuse, New York, produces the L.C. Smith & Brothers Typewriter.

1903

Nikola Tesla, a Yugoslavian scientist/inventor, patents electrical logic circuits called "gates" or "switches."

1904

British scientist John A. Fleming invents the "Fleming Valve", early radio diode tubes.

1905

The American Arithmometer Company, marketer of the Burroughs adding machines, changes its name to the Burroughs Adding Machine Company.

1905

Ira Rubel, an American paper maker and printer, develops the offset printing method.

1906

The "Dictaphone" trademark becomes registered.

1907

Lee De Forest, an American, patents the design for electron tubes, borrowing some aspects of the vacuum tube designed by John Ambrose Fleming, an Englishman. DeForest develops a triode amplifying tube called the audion

1907

The British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) is formed. The BTM uses machines and technology patented by Herman Hollerith. (After 1950, BTM merged with Powers-Samas (which marketed Remington-Rand's punch card machines) to form International Computers Ltd. in the UK.)

1909c

Holcolm Ellis, a St. Louis patent attorney, conceived a machine which was capable of typewriting and mechanically adding and printing figures and totals. Holcolm Ellis founds the Ellis Adding-Typewriter Company, in Newark, New Jersey.

1910

James Powers, a statistical engineer at the U.S. Census Bureau, designs a new type of punch-card equipment which used a "simultaneous punching" technique. This allowed data to be entered for an entire card before it was physically punched, thus saving losses on incorrect punches. This was a 90 column card with round holes.

1910

Elmer A. Sperry founds Sperry Gyroscope Company to develop and market his gyrocompass and other directional equipment.

1911

James Powers founds the Powers Accounting Machines Company (later to become part of Remington Rand Corporation).

1911

(July 5) The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) is founded. The CTR was formed from the "Tabulating Machine Company" (founded by Herman Hollerith and sold in 1911), the "Dayton Scale Company" (Dayton, Ohio), the "International Time Recording Company" (Endicott, New York) and the Bundy Manufacturing Company (Endicott, New York). The Computing-Tabulating-Recording company later changes its name to IBM.

1911

The first gyrocompass, developed by Sperry Gyroscope Company, is tested in the U.S. (in Delaware).

1911

NCR reports sale of its one-millionth (1,000,000) cash register machine.

1912

The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) is founded.

1912

The United States Government files an anti-trust suit against National Cash Register Corporation. During a three month trial, several NCR executives were found guilty. This is the U.S. Government's first use of the anti-trust laws in this fashion.

1912-1914

Harold D. Arnold, American physicist, and Irving Langmuir, an American chemist, improved the triode tube developed by Lee De Forrest, by increasing the amount of vacuum in the tube.

1912-1913

Lee De Forest and Edwin H. Armstrong develop the triode as an oscillator.

1913

Torres Y. Quevedo, a Spanish engineer, founds the science of automatic control engineering, dealing with the study and building of mechanisms and systems that can function without human involvement. Quevedo used the "automatos" for this science.

1914

Oscar and David Sundstrand produce a 10-key adding machine.

1914

The "Monroe" calculator was developed by Jay R. Monroe and Frank S. Baldwin.

1914

The first successful electric typewriter with a self-contained motor and designed specifically for power operation is developed by James Field Smathers. This machine was eventually manufactured by Electromatic Typewriter in 1930.

1914

(May 1) Thomas J. Watson, Sr., is hired as president of CTR company.

1914

Thomas A. Edison develops talking picture technology by linking a movie camera and a phonograph.

1914

Triode vacuum tubes are used in telephone lines.

1915

Edward Hebern invents a coding machine for encrypting messages. Hebern's machine was probably a forerunner of the German "Enigma" coding machine used during WW II.

1915

James H. Rand, Jr. devises the Kardex system.

1915

The Transcontinental U.S. Telephone Line is completed making possible long distance telephone communications through the use of repeaters and relays.

1916

Walter Schottky, a German physicist, invents the tetrode, a type of vacuum tube.

1917

NCR has gained 95% of the world's cash register machine market.

1918

The first automatic "playback" typewriter is developed using impressions on a paper roll that were replayed automatically by the typewriter.

1919

Hugo Koch, a Dutchman, patents a coding machine. This design was later used by Scherbius, a German engineer, who developed the Enigma coding machine used by the Germans in WW II.

1921

Burroughs Adding Machine Company acquires Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Company, a maker of billing and bookkeeping machines.

1921

Use of the Czech word "robot" is found in the play "R.U.R." by Karel Capek.

1923

(December 29) Vladimir K. Zworykin applies for a patent on the "Iconoscope", one of the first camera tubes.

1924

The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) founded in 1911, changes its name to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM).

1925

Charles Francis Jenkins uses a scanning disc with vacuum-tube amplifiers and photoelectric cells (early television technology).

1925

John Logie Baird uses a Nipkow Disk and photoelectric cell to transmit a picture over a distance of several feet (early television technology).

1925-1930

Vannevar Bush designs the first large-scale analog computer which used electrical motors and mechanical parts. Bush's machine is called an "integraph."

1926

Derrick Henry Lehmer, an American mathematician, developed a mechanical computing device that could determine large prime numbers. Lehmer's "number-sieve" could analyze 3,000 numbers per second to determine whether or not they were prime.

1926

NCR offers $55 million worth of its shares to the public. This was the largest public stock offering in the history of business up to this time.

1926

Benjamin D. H. Tellegen, a Dutch engineer, invents the pentode, a type of vacuum tube later used in radio.

1927

Remington Standard Typewriter Company merges with Rand Kardex, a manufacturer of visible index and office equipment. The new company is called Remington Rand.

1927

Powers Accounting Machine Company merges with Remington and Rand and becomes part of the new Remington Rand Company. Powers becomes the Tabulating Machines Division of Remington-Rand Corp.

1927

Radio-telephone becomes operational between London and New York.

1927

John Logie Baird demonstrates a successful picture transmission from London to Glasgow (early television technology).

1927

Sound movies ("Talkies") appear in American theaters.

1927

J. A. O'Neill patented magnetic-coated tape.

1928

Vladimir Zworykin invents the cathode ray tube (CRT) later used in television sets and computer video display devices.

1928

(May 11) Television station WGY in Schenectady, New York, becomes the first station to provide regularly scheduled broadcasts. WGY showed programs three evenings a week.

1928

(September 25) Paul Galvin founds the Galvin Manufacturing Company (later to become Motorola).

1928

John Logie Baird demonstrates a successful picture transmission from London to New York (early television technology.)

1928

In Germany, punched card equipment is attached as output devices to standard mechanical calculators.

1928

L. J. Comrie uses punched card machines to calculate the motions of the moon.

1929

(October 29) Great stock market crash occurs.

1929

(November 17) Herman Hollerith dies at age 69.

1929

(November 18) Vladimir Zworykin demonstrates an all electronic television receiver, using the kinescope as the picture. This is the first public demonstration of television of its kind.

1929

Sperry Gyroscope Company stock is acquired by C.M. Keys.

1929

Prior to the U.S. stock market crash (October 29, 1929), NCR reported sales of $57.6 million, with net profits of $8.3 million. After the crash, NCR stock prices fell from $154 per share to $6.87 per share.

1929

NCR acquires the Ellis Adding-Typewriter Company.

1929

IBM founds the Columbia University Statistical Bureau and donates punched card equipment to the school.

1930

Norbert Weiner, an American mathematician, advocates the use of digital rather than analog computers.

1930

The National Broadcasting Company begins operation of W2XBS, an experimental television station in New York City.

1931

(July 21) The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) began a regular schedule of television broadcasting on station W2XAB in New York City.

1931

(October 30) The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) started experimental television broadcasts from atop the Empire State Building in New York City.

1932

Derrick Henry Lehmer builds an improvement to his 1926 device, using a photoelectric type reader.

1932

U.S. Government files anti-trust suit against IBM charging that IBM abused a dominant market position and engaged in anticompetitive tactics to maintain that position.

1933

"Sperry Corporation" is organized as the holding and management company for stock of Sperry Gyroscope Company and Ford Instrument Company.

1933

The "Voder", the first electronic talking machine, was built by Dudley.

1934

Thomas Watson, Sr., executive at IBM, declared the highest paid executive in the nation; annual salary $364,432.

1936

Alan Mathison Turing publishes his paper "On Computable Numbers." His theoretical computer was called the Turing Machine. Turing later worked at Bletchley Park as part of a project designing a machine that would help cryptologists break the codes generated by the Germans in WWII. The German device used was called ENIGMA, and utilized wheels which rotated into different positions creating a code that was extremely difficult to break. The machine developed at Bletchley by Turing and others was called "the BOMBE", which was an electromechanical relay machine. The BOMBE helped determine the rotor positions of the ENIGMA and led to a breaking of German coded messages.

1936

The German computer scientist, Konrad Zuse, applies for a patent on his mechanical memory design.

1937

Howard Aiken takes his idea for an electromechanical computer to Thomas Watson, Sr. of IBM. Aiken begins design work on the MARK I automatic digital computer, also to be known as the IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator ((ASCC). (Becomes operational in 1944.

1937

IBM, in cooperation with Columbia University, develops the International Test Scoring Machine (ITSM).

1938

Sperry Corporation acquires Vickers, Inc., a leading manufacturer of hydraulic equipment for both commercial and government use.

1938

Bell Labs Model 1 Complex Calculator built by George Stibitz. This electromechanical computer was completed in November 1939.

1938

Konrad Zuse, a German engineer, builds a computer using a mechanical memory unit which could perform binary operations. His computer was called the "Z1." Work on the Z1 began in the early 1930's.

1938

Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett (later Hewlett-Packard) begin a part- time, informal partnership effort with $538. First product is a resistance-capacity audio oscillator (HP 200A), an electronic instrument used to test sound equipment. Their first major customer, Walt Disney, orders eight oscillators for the production of the movie "Fantasia."

1939

(January) Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett enter into a partnership agreement. They choose the name of their new partnership, Hewlett-Packard, by tossing a coin.

1939

The Bell Labs Model 1 Complex Calculator is completed and demonstrated. The Model 1 utilized 440 relays.

George Stibitz utilized perforated tape for data storage while at the Bell Telephone data processing laboratories

1939

(April 30) National Broadcasting Company (NBC) introduces television as a regular service. Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the first president to be seen on TV.

1939

First Radio Shack catalog is published.

1939

Konrad Zuse completes the Z2 computing machine.

1939

John T. Randall, and Henry A. H. Boot, British scientists, invent the magnetron tube which made microwave radar possible.

1939

Russell H. Varian and Sigurd V. Varian, American scientists, develop the Klystron microwave tube.

1939-1945

Bletchley Park, England (between London and Birmingham), is the site of research by British cryptologists attempting to break the codes generated by the German Enigma coding machines. Among those who worked at Bletchly Park were Cambridge University mathematics professor Max M.A. Newman, Alan Turing(major contributor to the development of "the Bombe," a code breaking computer), C. E. Wynn- Williams (inventor of first electronic particle counter used in physics research), Allen W. M. Coombs (Ph.D., Glasgow University), D. W. Babbage, (descendant of Charles Babbage), Ian Fleming (intelligence expert and author of James Bond novels), Sidney Broadhurst, Lewis Powell (later to become Justice Powell of the Supreme Court),

1940

(June 24) Coaxial cable was used for the first time between New York and Philadelphia (for use in television industry).

1940

(August 27) The first experimental color television broadcast was made from the CBS transmitter in New York City.

1940

Bell Laboratories conducts remote processing experiments utilizing one of the first remote terminals.

1940

Hewlett-Packard (partnership) in Palo Alto reaches revenues of $34,000 with 3 employees and 8 products.

1940

Norbert Weiner credited with inventing the study of communication and control mechanisms in machines and human beings. Weiner and A. Rosenblueth later call this science "Cybernetics," from the Greek word Kubernos, meaning pilot.

1941

Konrad Zuse completes his Z3 computer which uses telephone relays and a mechanical memory store. The Z3 could convert decimal to binary and back again. The Z3 also utilized a punched film for data input. It was probably the first computer to employ program control of sequential activities.

1941

Television stations WNBT and WCBW in New York City become the first TV transmitters commercially licensed to go on the air.

1942

Dr. John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry complete the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), an electronic digital computer.

1942

The Germans utilize a cypher machine known as "Fish" to encode messages. Fish used binary code.

1942

Thomas Flowers, one of the Bletchley Park team, develops the Heath Robinson electromechanical device. The Heath Robinson helped the English understand the code sequences produced by the German rotor machines.

1943

Moore School of Electrical Engineering's J. Presper Eckert, John Mauchly, Herman Goldstine and Brainerd visit the Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory at Aberdeen looking for backing for their concept for a high-speed computer. Present at Aberdeen were Marsten Morse, president of the American Mathematical Society, Oswald Veblen of Princeton, Colonel Leslie E. Simon, head of the Ballistic Research Laboratory, and Colonel Hermann Zornig, founder of the research laboratory. The University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering agreed to a contract with the Army and work on the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was begun. The ENIAC contained over 18,000 vacuum tubes and programs had to be physically wired into the computer. The ENIAC filled a room 30 feet by 50 feet and weighed about 30 tons. The ENIAC was completed in 1946 and one remained in use until 1955. The ENIAC project involved at least 21 people, with John P. Eckert as chief engineer and John Mauchly as senior consultant.

1943

George Stibitz and the NDRC ("National Defense Research Committee) work on the Model 2 general purpose computer. The Model 2 was one of the first programmable computers and utilized paper tape. It was installed at Bell Labs and was used for data interpolation. Stibitz and the National Defense Research Committee work on the Model 3 computer. The Model 3 was nicknamed "the baby" since its trouble alarm often went off during the night and woke people up. Improvements were made to the Model 3 which resulted in the Model 4 computer.

1943

(December) The Colossus, a code-breaking computer developed by the Bletchley Park team, becomes operational. Colossus used five parallel processors and about 1,500 vacuum tubes. The Colossus was one of the most effective early code-breaking computers.

1943

Joseph Chapline works with John Mauchly on a differential analyzer.

1943

Bell Labs Relay Interpolator becomes operational.

1943

Rudolph Kompfner, an Austrian-American scientist, invents the traveling wave tube.

1944

(August) Howard Aiken and his team at Harvard complete the development of the Harvard MARK I automatic digital computer. (Also known as the IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC).) Other members of the development team included IBM engineers Claire D. Lake, Francis E. Hamilton, and Benjamin M. Durfee. The Harvard Mark I was 51 feet long and 8 feet high and weighed over 5 tons. It was used at the Harvard Computation Laboratory. It was primarily used for defense problem solving, firing tables, logistics, mathematical simulations and problems relating to atomic bombs. It was in use until 1959. The ASCC was first calculator to have built-in stored program. It was one of the first computers to use registers. .

1944

Grace Murray Hopper (Lt. J.G.) joins the Harvard Mark I computer project under the direction of Howard Aiken.

1944

(August) John von Neumann begins working with John Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering (Univ. of Pennsylvania).

1944

Konrad Zuse develops the S1 computer which was used by the Germans in WW II.

1944

IBM produces the Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator (PSRC) for the U.S. Army.

1944

Work on the experimental computer "Whirlwind" is begun at MIT, by the Special Services Division of the Office of Research and Inventions. Project leader is J. W. Forrester. " R.)

1945

(March) Mark 22 Computer (Bell Computer, Mark IV)

1945

(August) World War II ends.

1945

(October 25) The image orthicon (television) tube is introduced.

1945

George Stibitz and his team work on two Model 5 computers: one was sent to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at Langly Field, Virginia and the other was sent to the Army ballistics center at Aberdeen.

1945

Konrad Zuse develops the Z4 computer which was later destroyed in the war.

1945

By this time, IBM's annual sales increased from $1.4 million (1914) to $140 million at war's end.

1945

AT&T Bell Laboratories employs physicists to work in semiconductor research. Included are William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen.

1945

Grace Murray Hopper documents the first computer bug, a dead moth in the cabinet of a Mark II computer. (The term "bug" for a problem had also been used earlier by Thomas Edison in 1878.)

1946

An Wang (to become founder of Wang Corporation) who arrived in the U.S. from China in 1945, receives his M.S. in applied physics at Harvard (and later his Ph.D. in 1948).

1946

(January) T. J. Watson, Sr., authorizes the construction of the IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC).

1946

(January) Use of digital rather than analog computing techniques is proposed by J. W. Forrester for use by the Aircraft Stability and Control Analyzer (ASCA) project at MIT.

1946

(January 8) The Engineering Research Associates ("ERA") is founded by Howard T. Engstrom, Ralph L. Meader, William C. Norris, and John E. Parker.

1946

(February) Work on the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), begun in 1943, was completed and dedicated at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering (Univ. of Pennsylvania). The ENIAC utilized nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes and could perform 5,000 additions and 360 multiplications per second. The ENIAC weighed about 30 tons.

1946

Presper Eckert, John Mauchly, John von Neumann, Herman Goldstine and A. W. Burks teamed to work on a computer called the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer). The EDVAC was completed in 1952. The EDVAC utilized 3,600 vacuum tubes and was the first stored program computer. The EDVAC was used at the Ballistic Research Laboratories at Aberdeen, Maryland. It was operational until December 1962. .

1946

(March 31) J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly resign from the Moore School of Engineering due to disagreements concerning Moore's patent policies.

1946

(June) J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly found the Electronic Control Company, which later becomes the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company.

1946

(September 17) First post-WW II television sets go on sale.

1946

(November 12) Private T. N. Wood, using a desk calculator, is beaten in a math contest by Kiyoshi Matsuzaki, who uses a soroban (abacus). The test is based on speed and accuracy.

1946

The Mark II, a relay machine built for the U.S. Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren, is completed.

1946

Herman H. Goldstine and John von Neumann introduce the method of flow diagrams.

1946

First use of term "BIT" for "Binary Digit" is made by John Turkey.

1946

Bell Computer, Model V (Bell Telephone Labs) . (Date approximate)

1946

Magnetic drum technology is used for information storage in early computer systems.

1947

(January) Northrop Company produces a Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA).

1947

(January 3) First television transmission showing U.S. Congress in session made from Washington D.C.

1947

Professor Maurice Wilkes began work on the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer). The EDSAC became operational in 1949 and was the first computer to actively utilize the stored-program concept. The EDSAC utilized 3,000 vacuum tubes.

1947

(August 18) Hewlett-Packard partnership (Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard) becomes incorporated.

1947

(October 9) Northrop Aircraft Company, Eckert and Mauchly signed a contract to build the BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer).

1947

(December) J. Bardeen and W. H. Brattain invent the transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

1947

F. C. Williams, Max Newman and others build the Manchester Mark I computer (known as the MADM). An electronics firm, Feranti, undertook to build several Mark I machines.

1947

John Mauchly chooses the name "UNIVAC" (Universal Automatic Computer) for his company's product. The UNIVAC was first sold in 1951.

1947

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is formed.

1947

The electrostatic tube is used for computer memory, based on work done by F. C. Williams. His device is referred to as the "Williams Tube."

1948

(January 27) The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) is dedicated by T. J. Watson, Sr. The SSEC was set up around the periphery of a 60 foot by 30 foot room. (July) IBM announces the 604 Electronic Calculating Punch machine. This machine contained over 1400 vacuum tubes and had 50 decimal units of storage.

1948

(September) Harvard Mark II .

1948

The Manchester University Mark I computer is developed.

1949

(January 20) Inauguration of President Truman was seen over 15 television stations from Boston to St. Louis.

1949

(May 31) First closed-circuit color television broadcast of a surgical operation was made from the University of Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia.

1949

Burroughs Adding Machine Company establishes an electronics research laboratory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1949

Grace Murray Hopper joins the Eckert-Mauchly Corporation as senior mathematician.

1949

The EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Computer), started in 1947, becomes operational.

1949

J. Lyons & Company, possibly the first commercial sponsors of an electronic computer, begin work on the LEO (Lyons Electronic Office) computer. The LEO was based on the earlier EDSAC design. The LEO was operational by 1951.

1949

(August) The BINAC computer is completed and demonstrated. The BINAC was actually two computers which carried out operations simultaneously and compared the results. It was the first computer to work in real time. .

1949

First chess playing computer built by Claude Shannon of MIT.

1949

Bell Computer, Model VI .

1949

IBM CPC - Card Programmed Calculator

1949

Work on the SWAC (Standards Western Automatic Computer) was begun at the National Bureau of Standards under the name "ZEPHYR."

1949

The experimental computer "Whirlwind" first comes on line. Project leader is J. W. Forrester."

1949

Popular Mechanics Magazine publishes article on computers stating: "Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons."

1949

Jay Forrester uses iron core memory for main computer memory storage. Iron core storage began to be replaced by semiconductor memory in 1964.

1950

(February 1) The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) is acquired by Remington-Rand.

1950

(June) National Bureau of Standards completes the SEAC (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer). formerly called the ZEPHYR. .

1950

(September) An RCA engineer, Jan Rajchman, files a patent application for a "magnetic memory device."

1950

(December) The ERA delivers the Atlas I stored-program computer to the U.S. Government. The ERA 1101 contained 2700 vacuum tubes, 2385 crystal diodes and utilized magnetic drum main memory.

1950

IBM opens its United Kingdom subsidiary, IBM UK.

1950

The Mark III, an electronic relay machine built for U.S. Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren, is completed.

1950

Hewlett-Packard's revenue reaches $2 million with 146 employees and 70 products.

1950

The first speech recognition machine is built in 1950 by an American, K. H. Davis, at Bell Labs.

1951

(January) Harvard Mark III .

1951

(February) Burroughs Laboratory Computer .

1951

(March 31) The first Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) comes on line for the U.S. Census Bureau. The UNIVAC utilized 5400 vacuum tubes. The UNIVAC was the first electronic, stored-program computer to be produced and sold to the commercial market. The first commercial customer to purchase a UNIVAC was the Prudential Insurance Company. A total of 46 UNIVAC Model I's were ultimately built for government and commercial use. The UNIVAC was also the first computer to come equipped with a magnetic tape unit and was the first computer to use buffer memory)

1951

(May) J. W. Forrester files a patent for his magnetic core memory.

1951

(May) ONR Relay Computer (Office of Naval Research) .

1951

(June) Elecom 200 Electronic Computer .

1951

(July) MADDIDA - Magnetic Drum Digital Differential Analyzer .

1951

(July) Manchester Electronic Computer .

1951

(September 4) First coast-to-coast television broadcast showed President Truman opening the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference at San Francisco.

1951

(October) CSIRO Mark I Computer .

1951

(December) Remington-Rand 409-2 and 409-2R .

1951

John von Neumann's IAS computer becomes operational. The IAS was named after the Institute for Advanced Study, where the machine was developed. Von Neumann worked on the IAS with Julian Bigelow

1951

F. C. Williams and others at Manchester University built an improved version of the Manchester Mark I, called the Mark II or MEG (megacycle engine).

1951

The experimental computer "Whirlwind" is completed at MIT, by the Special Services Division of the Office of Research and Inventions. Project leader is J. W. Forrester.

1951

Publication of Maurice V. Wilkes, D. J. Wheeler, and S. Gill on preparation of programs for an electronic digital computer.

1951

Dr. An Wang founds Wang Laboratories in Boston, Massachusetts for the development of specialized electronic and digital equipment.

1951

First Joint Computer Conference is held.

1951

Hewlett-Packard invents the high-speed frequency counter (HP 524A) which is used by radio stations to accurately set frequencies.

1951

JAINCOMP-B Computer .

1951

LEO - Lyons Electronic Office .

1951

The first use of plastic magnetic tape was by Luis Fem, on the Faydac,a Raytheon machine.

1951

H. V. Wilkes develops the technique of microprogramming, which greatly simplified the functioning of the central processing unit of a computer.

1952

(January) Thomas J. Watson, Jr. becomes president of IBM. His father, Thomas J. Watson, Sr., remains Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer.

1952

(January) CADAC - Cambridge Digital Automatic Computer

1952

(January) IASC - Institute for Advanced Study Computer

1952

(February) Hughes Airborne Control Computer

1952

(March) MANIAC - Mathematical Analyzer Numerical Integrator and Computer .

1952

(March) ORDVAC - Ordnance Discrete Variable Automatic Computer

1952

(May) Harwell Computer .

1952

(June) John von Neumann's IAS computer was publically announced.

1952

(June) APE (R) C - All-Purpose Electronic (Rayon) Computer

1952

(June) Gi- Gottingen (Germany) Computer .

1952

(September) ILLIAC - Illinois Automatic Computer

1952

(October) GAMMA 3 Computer .

1952

(November) ELECOM 100 Electronic Computer

1952

(December) MOSAIC - Ministry of Supply Arithmetical Integrator & Calculator .

1952

ELECOM 120 Electronic Computer .

1952

The Democratic and Republican National Conventions were televised for the first time.

1952

The EDVAC computer, begun in 1946, was completed.

1952

IBM is selected to work with MIT on a proposed government air defense system. System is later called "Project SAGE."

1952

Engineering Research Associates (ERA), the primary supplier of electronic components and cryptographic equipment for defense, is purchased by Remington-Rand.

1952

The Harvard Mark IV, an electronic machine built for U. S. Air Force, is completed. .

1952

National Cash Register Company (NCR) buys the Computer Research Corporation (CRC).

1952

Fred Gruenberger writes the first computer manual.

1952

Nixdorf Computer company is founded in Germany.

1952

RCA develops Bizmac computer, utilizing iron-core memory and a magnetic storage drum used to house a database. The Bizmac uses one of the first database management systems.

1952

UTEC - University of Toronto Electronic Computer

1952

U.S. Government files anti-trust suit against IBM. (This action was ended in 1956 by a "Consent Decree.")

1953

(January) NICHOLAS Computer .

1953

(January) PTERA - Postal Telecommunications Electronic Automatic Calculator .

1953

(February) The ERA 1103 computer is announced. The 1103 uses electrostatic tube memory.

1953

The CADAC 100 series of magnetic drum computers is introduced by Computer Research Corporation.

1953

(March) Circle Computer .

1953

(March) The Logistics Computer .

1953

(March) MONROBOT Computer .

1953

(March) Tokyo Mark I Computer .

1953

(April) The IBM 701 computer is formally dedicated. IBM builds a total of 19 model 701's.

1953

(April) FLAC - Florida Automatic Computer

1953

(April) OARAC Computer .

1953

(May) The MIT test computer (MTC) is the first to successfully run a ferrite core main memory.

1953

(May) ABC - Automatic Binary Computer

1953

(May) Consolidated Engineering Corp. Model 36-101

1953

(May) MIDAC - Minimal Automatic Computer

1953

(May) SITDDA - Stevens Institute of Technology Digital Differential Analyzer .

1953

(June) ORACLE Computer .

1953

(June) Z5 (Konrad Zuse) Computer .

1953

(July) DYSEAC computer .

1953

(July) Elliot HRDC Computer 401 Mark I

1953

(July) RAYDAC - Raytheon Digital Automatic Computer

1953

(October 31) First hour-long television program in electronic color was broadcast.

1953

Burroughs Corporation installs the Universal Digital Electronic Computer (UDEC) at Wayne State University.

1953

Remington-Rand develops the first high-speed printer for use on the UNIVAC.

1953

IBM introduces the first magnetic tape device, the IBM 726, which has a density of 100 characters-per-inch and a speed of 75 inches-per-second.

1953

(December) AWLWAC -Axel Wernner-Gren Automatic Computer

1953

ACE Pilot Model Automatic Computing Engine .

1953

Burroughs Adding Machine Company changes its name to Burroughs Corporation.

1953

An experimental computer "TX-O" is built at MIT.

1953

APE (X) All-Purpose Electronic (x-ray) Computer

1953

AVDIAC - Argonne's Version of IAS Digital Automatic Computer

1953

ABRK - Binary Automatisk Rela-Kalkylator (date approximate)

1953

BKSK - Binar Klektronisk Sekvens-Kalkylator (date approximate)

1953

CADAC 107A - Cambridge Digital Automatic Computer

1953

CA/DIC - California Digital Computer .

1953

CRC 105 Decimal Digital Differential Analyzer

1953

CRC 107 - General Purpose Computer .

1953

ERA 1102 Computer .

1954

IBM Type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine

1953

ERA 1103 Computer .

1953

IBM 607 Electronic Calculating Punch .

1953

JAINCOMP-B Computer .

1953

Norwegian Computer .

1953

OMIBAC Computer .

1953

Rechenautomat Computer .

1953

T.R.E. Computer .

1953

Nathanial Rochester, of IBM, develops symbolic assembly program.

1953

Work is begun on the Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) under the direction of Byron L. Havens at IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University. The NORC was later turned over to the U.S. Navy on December 2, 1954. One of its functions included the calculating of Pi to 3,000 places. In the summer of 1955, the NORC was installed at the Naval Proving Grounds at Dahlgren, Virginia. It remained there until it was replaced by the IBM Stretch computer in 1958.

1953

IBM EDPM 704 - Electronic Data Processing Machine

1954

(January 1) Pasadena California's Tournament of Roses Parade becomes the first television program to be shown in color on a nationwide network.

1954

(January) BDDA - Bendix Decimal Differential Analyzer

1954

(January) CUBA - Calculator Universal Binaire de l'Armement

1954

(January) JOHNNIAC Computer (Rand Corp.)

1954

(March) Tokyo Mark II Computer .

1954

(April) TAC - Tokyo Automatic Computer .

1954

(May) IBM announces the 704 computer as a replacement for the model 701. The 704 ultimately used ferrite core memory. Gene Amdahl develops the first operating system.

1954

(June) NAREC - Naval Research Laboratory Electronic Digital Computer

1954

(October) IBM demonstrates an experimental model 604 electronic calculator which used all transistors. The first all-transistor calculator was based on these circuits, later sold as the IBM 608.

1954

(November) International Telemeter company installs a 4096 word ferrite core memory on the Rand Corporation's Johnniac computer.

1954

(November) ERA delivers a model 1103 computer, using 32x32x36 bit memory, to the National Security Agency.

1954

(December) MSAC - Moore School Automatic Computer

1954

It is estimated that over 90% of all tabulating machines in the United States are IBM machines.

1954

Gordon Teal, a physicist who had moved from Bell Labs to Texas Instruments, develops the silicon-based junction transistor.

1954

Planning Research Corporation founded.

1954

Wang Laboratories moves its facility from Boston to Cambridge Massachusetts.

1954

Formula Translator, or FORTRAN, programming language is developed by John Backus. The first successful FORTRAN program is run by Harlan Herrick.

1954

Radio Shack releases first "Realist" Tuner/Amplifier.

1954

ARRA - Automatishe Relais Rekenmachine Amsterdam

1954

G2-Gottingen (Germany) Computer .

1954

IRSIA-FHRS Computer .

1954

PXRM (German computer) .

1954

WISC - Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer

1954

The NORC (Naval Ordnance Research Calculator) is turned over to the U.S. Navy 1953 entry).

1954

The TRADIC (Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer) is developed by J. H. Felker and a team of co-workers. The TRADIC is the first universal computer to be entirely transistorized.

1955

(January 19) First motion pictures of a presidential press conference were shown on television.

1955

(February) The first IBM model 702 is accepted by a customer. IBM builds a total of 14 model 702's.

1955

(December) The first IBM model 704 is shipped to IBM headquarters.

1955

Remington Rand Corporation merges with Sperry Corporation to form Sperry Rand. General Douglas MacArthur becomes chairman of the new corporation.

1955

Raytheon Company sells its computer division to Minneapolis Honeywell.

1955

Wang Laboratories, founded in 1951, becomes formally incorporated. An Wang, founder, becomes the first president and treasurer of Wang Laboratories, Inc.

1955

The total U.S. installed computer base reaches an estimated worth of $250 million.

1955

National Cash Register Company (NCR) introduces "NCR Paper", a carbonless paper which used a microencapsulation technology. NCR's initials became humorously translated as "No Carbon Required."

1955

First "SHARE" users group meeting is held.

1955

R4S Computer (Swiss) .

1955

TC-1 Telemeter Computer Model 1 .

1955-6

"Science Kits" company, Jersey City, New Jersey, markets the "first electrical brain construction kit", called the GENIAC. The GENIAC was an electro-mechanical problem solving computer which sold for $19.95 and could be assembled at home.

1956

(January 25) The anti-trust case, United States of America vs. International Business Machines Corporation (Civil Action No 72-344, Southern District of New York, filed in 1952) was ended by a "Consent Decree." The thirty-seven page decree stated, among other things, that IBM would have to sell its equipment not exclusively lease it.

1956

(January) IBM ships first model 705 computers to customers.

1956

(January) IBM contracts with the National Security Agency (NSA) to develop memory technology as part of Project Silo.

1956

(April 15) World's first all-color television station, WNBQ (now WMAQ-TV) begins operating in Chicago.

1956

(June) Thomas J. Watson, Sr. (former IBM founder) dies of heart attack.

1956

(November) IBM signs a contract with the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to deliver the "Stretch" computer.

1956

NCR announces the "Post-Tronic", the first machine in the industry to use magnetic ledger cards to store previous numerical balance information.

1956

Rand Corporation Board of Trustees votes to create "System Development Corporation" (SDC) from the System Development Division, one of the groups involved in the Air Force computer project SAGE.

1956

IPL-V (Information Processing Language V) is developed by A. Newell, D. Shaw, and F. Simon.

1956

The term "artificial intelligence" is coined by John McCarthy.

1956

Burroughs Corporation acquires ElectroData Corporation, maker of the Datatron, a successful and versatile, medium-sized electronic computer. The Datatron becomes the Burroughs model 205.

1956

Atomic Energy Commission orders LARC (Livermore Atomic Research Computer).

1956

The Automatic Programmed Tool (APT) is developed by D. T. Ross.

1956

First portable electric typewriters are available.

1956

Bell Laboratories introduces the "Leprechaun," its first experimental transistorized computer.

1957

(April 29) IBM ships the first type 738 memory to Rand Corporation for use in an IBM 704 computer. This was IBM's first 1 megabit memory.

1957

(July) IBM discusses a patent cross-license agreement with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) which covers computer-related technologies, including magnetic core memories.

1957

(July 8) Control Data Corporation (CDC) is founded in Minnesota. Control Data begins operations on September 1, 1957 with four employees. Initial capitalization of CDC was through the sale of 615,000 shares of common stock at $1 per share to approximately 300 stockholders. Included among the first corporate officers was W.C. Norris, President. CDC's first major business decision was the development of a large-scale computer (model 1604). The second major decision was the acquisition of Cedar Engineering for $428,000 to obtain manufacturing capability. Total number of employees was about 13.

1957

(August) Kenneth Olson, along with Stan Olsen and Harland Anderson, left M.I.T.'s Lincoln Labs and founded Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) with $70,000 in capital. Digital opens its first plant in Maynard, Massachusetts with three employees and 8,500 square feet of production space in a converted woolen mill. Its first product was logic modules. Initial funding was from American Research and Development, a Boston-based venture capital firm.

1957

(October 4) The first artificial earth satellite, Sputnik I, is launched by the U.S.S.R. and sends back information from space. (Sputnik I falls back to earth on January 4, 1958.)

1957

(November 6) Hewlett-Packard makes its first public stock offering.

1957

(December) IBM ships the model 608 electronic calculator. This is the first commercial electronic calculator made using all solid-state circuitry and memory.

1957

Fairchild Semiconductor Company is founded in Silicon Valley, California.

1957

The first patent is filed for a desktop calculator, the "arithmometer."

1957

IT (Internal Translator) programming language is developed.

1957

COMIT programming language is developed.

1957

NCR announces the NCR 304, the first fully solid-state business computer.

1957

First issue of "Datamation" magazine is published.

1957

Raytheon and Honeywell work together to ship the Datamatic 1000 computer.

1957

"Atlas", the first virtual memory machine, is installed in England by Feranti. Atlas was developed by R. M. Kilburn at the University of Manchester.

1958

(February) Digital Equipment Corporation's first systems modules go on sale. First year sales amount to $94,000.

1958

(July) The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) computer system becomes operational at McGuire Air Force Base.

1958

(July) IBM contracts to supply transistorized 709's for the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). The model 709 is later called model 7090.

1958

APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programming language is developed.

1958

FLOW-MATIC programming language is developed.

1958

Jean Hoerni, a Swiss-born physicist, develops a method of creating transistors using silicon dioxide. This is called the "planar method."

1958

Control Data Corporation announces its first major computer system, the fully transistorized CDC 1604. CDC is sued by Sperry Rand Corporation. CDC reports a loss in earnings of $114,700. Revenues total $636,800. Total stockholders number 900. Total number of employees at CDC is 260.

1958

NEC builds its first electronic computers, the NEC 1101 and 1102, in Japan.

1958

The Perceptron Mark I, which utilized a CRT output device, is built by Frank Rosenblatt.

1958

Hewlett-Packard makes its first business acquisition, the F. L. Mosley Company of Pasadena, California, producer of high quality graphic recorders. HP reaches revenues of $52 million with 1,778 employees and 373 products.

1958

Virtual memory is developed by a team under R. M. Kilburn (University of Manchester) and Feranti for use on the English "Atlas" series of computers.

1959

(January) Texas Instruments announces the first integrated circuit (using germanium).

1959

(December) IBM ships the first model 7090 computer to Sylvania for use in the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). IBM also ships the 1620. The 7090 and 1620 are fully transistorized, second generation computers.

1959

Transistorized commercial computers come into use.

1959

Grace Murray Hopper and others meet to discuss specifications for a common business language for computers. Followup meetings result in designs that later become COBOL ("Common Business Oriented Language").

1959

Fairchild Corporation markets the planar transistor, the first device to use integrated circuit technology. Robert Noyce, working at Fairchild, develops the "monolithic idea" for integrated circuits.

1959

Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) develops the PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor - 1), the world's first minicomputer. The PDP-1 was developed by Benjamin Curley. (Announced in 1960)

1959

John Mauchly leaves Remington and founds his own consulting business- -Mauchly Associates.

1959

DYNAMO III programming language is developed.

1959

Robert Noyce (of Fairchild Research), improves the methods used to manufacture transistors.

1959

Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces its second computer the Model 160, a desk-size, solid-state computer for scientific applications. Designer of the Model 160 was Seymour R. Cray. Total employees at CDC number 380.

1959

Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) is founded.

1959

Applied Research is incorporated.

1960

(October) The U.S. Patent Office Board of Interferences awards RCA with certain patents earlier claimed by Forrester.

1960

ALGOL 60 (Algorithmic Language) programming language is developed.

1960

COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is developed.

1960

LISP (List Processing) programming language is developed.

1960

MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) programming language is developed.

1960

JOVIAL (Jules' Own Version of International Algebraic Language) is developed.

1960

NELIAC (Navy Electronics Laboratory International Algol Compiler) language is developed.

1960

SCEPTRE programming language is developed.

1960

(November) Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the PDP-1, the world's first small, interactive computer. The PDP-1 sold for about $120,000, which made it one of the most inexpensive computers of that time. The PDP also utilized a keyboard which allowed the operator to "talk" to it and change the programming mid-stream, if necessary.

1960

(December 9) Sperry-Rand announces the UNIVAC model 1107, the first computer to utilize thin film memory.

1960

Control Data Corporation (CDC) acquires Control Corporation, a major supplier of supervisory control systems. CDC ships four model 1604 computers. Sale price of 1604 is approximately $60,000. Seymour R. Cray begins development of the CDC 6600, a large-scale computer. Total company earnings reach $551,000. Revenues exceed $9.6 million. Total employees number 690.

1960

NCR produces its first low-cost, mass produced computer, the desk-size NCR 390.

1960

The United States launches its first passive communications satellite, the Echo I, a huge plastic balloon with a thin coating of metal. The Echo I was designed to reflect signals back to earth. It burned up on re-entering the Earth's atmosphere in 1968.

1960

National Library of Medicine begins development of MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis Retrieval System) the world's largest medical information storage and retrieval system. The MEDLARS computer began operation in Bethesda, Maryland in 1964.

1960

Removable magnetic discs for data storage are introduced, called "magazines."

1961

IBM introduces the "Selectric" typewriter which had a non-moving carriage and a round typing element. This becomes the first commercially successful ball-typewriter.

1961

Fairchild Corporation markets the first commercially available integrated circuit. The IC contained four transistors and two resistors.

1961

(May) William Norris, President of Control Data Corporation (CDC) unofficially announces the new CDC 6600 computer.

1961

GPSS (General Purpose Systems Simulator) programming language is developed.

1961

Burroughs Corporation introduces the B 5000 machine.

1961

Remington-Rand, Univac Division, announces the first mobile computer center. The mobile center utilized a UNIVAC solid state 90.

1961

Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces the CDC 160A computer, which has twice the computing power of the 160 (developed in 1959). The Model 160A sold for $90,000. CDC stock splits three for one. Employees number 1,350.

1961

The American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) is formed.

1961

IBM ships the Stretch computer to Los Alamos for the U.S Atomic Energy Commission. The Stretch is a transistorized computer utilizing 64-bit data paths and eight-bit bytes. The Stretch is provided on a rental basis at $300,000 per month and performs 500,000 calculating operations per second. It remained in operation until 1971. The Stretch computer is the first system to utilize the Byte as a basic unit of information.

1961

Hewlett-Packard enters the medical field with the purchase of Sanborn Company, of Waltham, Massachusetts. HP becomes listed on the New York and Pacific Stock Exchanges.

1961

The Health Law Center at the University of Pittsburgh demonstrated the first operational system for automated statute research.

1961

The "Anita," an electric calculator, is developed by N. Kritz and made by Sumlock Comptometer Company, Ltd.

1961

F. Corbato heads a team at MIT which designed one of the first time- sharing systems (CTSS-Compatible Time Sharing System) which was used for the IBM 7090 computers.

1962

APL (A Programming Language) is developed by Ken Iverson, IBM and Harvard University.

1962

(June) Digital Equipment Corporation's annual sales have grown from $94,000 in 1958 to over $6.5 million.

1962

Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces two new computers, the CDC 1604A and the CDC 3600. CDC headquarters move to a 31 acre site in Bloomington, Minnesota. Earnings reach $1.5 million. Revenues were $41 million. The law suit filed by Sperry Rand against CDC is settled out of court. Employees of CDC number 2,273.

1962

Informatics is founded.

1962

Wang Laboratories develops the first electronic justifying typesetter, the LINASEC.

1962

Rand Corporation develops SIMSCRIPT, a general purpose simulation language.

1962

IBM's annual revenue from computer products reaches $1 billion.

1962

Electronic Data Systems (EDS) is founded in Dallas, Texas by H. Ross Perot.

1962

Hewlett-Packard is included for the first time in the Fortune 500 list of companies.

1962

Telecommunications satellites are put in geo-synchronous earth orbits for national and global television communications.

1962

First industrial robots appear, the "Unimates," developed by Unimation Inc., Danbury, Connecticut.

1962

The first time sharing system to be effectively marketed is used on the PDP I computer.

1962

IBM markets the first removable magnetic disks (1311) which had 3 Mb capacity.

1963

(March) Digital Equipment Corporation opens its first European sales and service office in Germany, staffed by three people. Digital's first Canadian office opens in Ottawa, staffed by two people.

1963

(April) Digital Equipment Corporation announces the world's first minicomputer, the PDP-5.

1963

(September) Digital Equipment Corporation announces the PDP-1 operating system, the first timesharing system.

1963

SNOBOL (String Oriented Symbolic Language) is developed.

1963

COGO (Coordinate Geometry) programming language is developed.

1963

Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces the CDC 6600, a large- scale computer. CDC acquires the computer division of Bendix Corporation. CDC earnings reach $3.1 million. Revenues exceed $63 million.

1963

Clifford Berry (one of the builders of the ABC computer) is found dead. Reported as suicide.

1963

NCR establishes its first microelectronics research laboratory in Dayton, Ohio.

1963

MIT's Lincoln Laboratories develops Sketchpad, a conversational computer graphics console utilizing a light pen. This is one of the first computer aided design (CAD) type workstations.

1963

General Motors develops the DAC-1 computer graphics console for CAD operations.

1963

Tandy Corporation acquires Radio Shack's nine stores.

1963

The first light pen as an input device to a computer was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Sutherland as part of the Sketchpad graphics system.

1963

Two early computer assisted design (CAD) systems are in use: Sketchpad (Lincoln Laboratory of MIT) and DAC-1 (at General Motors).

1963

Sperry Rand, Control Data Corporation, Philco, Burroughs, General Electric, National Cash Register and Honeywell are referred to as the "Seven Dwarfs." Their combined revenues totaled $1,686,614,000. IBM (Snow White) revenues alone totaled $1,244,161,000. (AT&T was not included because it was larger than IBM due to its telephone business, but AT&T's computer business generated $97,000,000.)

1964

(April) IBM announces the System/360 computer. Over 1,000 computers are ordered within the first 30 days.

1964

(June) Digital Equipment Corporation opens subsidiaries in Australia and the United Kingdom.

1964

(October) Digital Equipment Corporation announces its first 36-bit computer, the PDP-6.

1964

IBM introduces the magnetic tape selectric typewriter (MT/ST). The MT/ST used magnetic tape to record keystrokes which could then be played back. The MT/ST was the forerunner of today's modern word processing systems.

1964

The BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) language is developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College.

1964

FORMAC (Formula Manipulation Compiler) is developed.

1964

JOSS (Johnniac Open Shop System) language is developed.

1964

PL/1 programming language is developed.

1964

Planning Research Corporation acquires Reliability Research and Technology.

1964

RCA builds the Spectra 70 computer, a plug-compatible system with the IBM 360 series.

1964

Control Data Corporation (CDC) ships the first CDC 6600 computer (announced in 1963) to Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore California. CDC acquires Rabinow Engineering, maker of optical character reading equipment, Transactor Business of the Stromberg Division of General Time, maker of data collection systems, and Holley Computer Products, maker of computer peripheral products. The CDC 3200 computer is added to the product line. CDC stock splits 3 for 2. Earnings were $6.1 million. Revenues exceed $121 million. Employees number 6,861.

1964

On its 25th anniversary, Hewlett-Packard records revenue of $136 million with 7,500 employees and over 1,500 products.

1964

One of the first applications of an integrated circuit is used in a hearing aid by Texas Instruments.

1965

(March 24) First live television pictures of moon shown on earth TV sets.

1965

(April) IBM ships the first System/360 Model 40.

(June) IBM ships the first System/360 Model 30.

(August) IBM ships the first System/360 Model 50.

(November) IBM ships the first System/360 Model 65.

1965

Digital Equipment Corporation produces the PDP-8, which sold for about $25,000. The PDP-8 was the first mass-produced minicomputer.

1965

Hewlett-Packard enters the analytical-instrumentation field with the acquisition of F&M Scientific Corporation, Avondale, Pennsylvania.

1965

TRAC programming language is developed.

1965

Control Data Corporation (CDC) delivers its first model CDC 3100 computer. Earnings reach $7.9 million. Revenues reach $160 million. "Control Data Institutes" for computer training are established in the U.S. CDC employees number 9,744.

1965

Early Bird satellite is launched by Comsat (Communications Satellite Corporation).

1966

(January) IBM ships the first System/360 Model 75.

1966

Coursewriter II programming language is developed.

1966

OMNITAB II programming language is developed.

1966

ECAP II (Electronic Circuit Analysis Program II) is developed.

1966

MPSX (Mathematical Programming System Extended) is developed.

1966

Digital Equipment Corporation drops the price of the PDP-8 to about $10,000, making it more affordable to many businesses.

1966

Digital Equipment Corporation makes its first public stock offering.

1966

Control Data Corporation (CDC) installs first CDC 1700 computer at Bell Laboratories, Greensboro, North Carolina. The first CDC 3800 is installed at the U.S. Navy Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. Dual CDC 3600's were used at Cape Kennedy in the Apollo moon flight program. Earnings show loss of $1.9 million. CDC revenues exceed $167 million. Employees number 11,048.

1966

Honeywell acquires Computer Control Company, a manufacturer of minicomputers.

1966

Scientific Data Systems (SDS) introduces the Sigma 7.

1966

The first solid-state, hand-held calculator is developed at Texas Instruments.

1966

Hewlett-Packard Laboratories are formed. This base becomes the company's central research facility and one of the world's leading electronic research centers. HP announces its first computer, the HP 2116A, designed as a controller for some of the company's test and measurement instruments.

1967

(March) Digital Equipment Corporation announces the PDP-10 computer.

1967

(July) Digital Equipment Corporation's plant in Reading, England, begins manufacturing PDP-8 computers. Digital's overall annual sales reach $38,000,000.

1967

Ex-Fairchild Corporation executives form "Intel Corporation." ("Intel" was derived from the words "integrated electronics.")

1967

ICES (Integrated Civil Engineering System) language is developed.

1967

CSSL (Continuous System Simulation Language) is developed.

1967

Simula 67 (Simulation Language 67) is developed.

1967

Bubble memory is developed at Bell Laboratories by A. H. Bobeck.

1967

Control Data Corporation (CDC) acquires Autocon Industries and CEIR, Inc. CDC employees number 14,881.

1967

First symposium on Operating System Principles held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. AGS Computers, Inc. is founded.

1967

Planning Research Corporation acquires R. Dixon Speas Associates and Alan M. Voorhees and Associates.

1967

The first issue of "Computerworld" magazine is published.

1967

Under a grant from the U.S. Office of Education, development of a multiple access computer system for large university libraries was begun at Stanford University. The project is named BALLOTS (Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations).

1968

(January) Digital stock begins trading on the American Stock Exchange.

1968

IBM begins to "unbundle" software, leading eventually to a commercial software sales boom.

1968

ALGOL 68 (Algorithmic Language 68) is developed.

1968

ATLAS (Abbreviated Test Language for "All" Systems) is developed.

1968

CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) language is developed.

1968

Speakeasy programming language is developed.

1968

Control Data Corporation (CDC) revenues exceed $830 million. Consolidated earnings were $45.5 million. CDC announces the CDC 7600, the most powerful computer of its time. CDC acquires Commercial Credit Corporation (largest acquisition by CDC as of this date). On December 11, CDC files a major anti-trust law suit against IBM, charging violation of Section 2 of the Sherman Antitrust Act and unfair marketing practices. CDC employees number 37,091.

1968

Cullinane incorporated.

1968

Cincom Systems, Inc. is founded.

1968

Tracor Continuum Company is founded.

1968

Planning Research Corporation acquires H. G. Maynard and Co. and Crawford, Bunte, and Roden.

1968

The first medical diagnostic program, Dendral, is developed by Joshua Lederberg at Stanford University.

1968

Hewlett-Packard introduces the world's first desktop scientific calculator,

the HP 9100A.

1968

By this year, IBM had installed over 14,000 System/360 large-scale computer systems.

1969

(January 17) Federal Government files an anti-trust lawsuit against IBM charging that IBM monopolized the general-purpose computer systems market. (This suit lasts until January 8, 1982, at which time the Government withdraws it.)

1969

(May) Digital Equipment Corporation stock splits three-for-one, reflecting tremendous overall growth.

1969

(July 20) First live television pictures from moon's surface are seen on earth.

1969

First international joint conference on artificial intelligence is held.

1969

IBM introduces its first minicomputer, the System/3.

1969

MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital General Utility Multi-Programming System) programming language is developed.

1969

PILOT programming language is developed.

1969

Control Data Corporation (CDC) revenues exceed $1 billion. Consolidated earnings were $53.2 million. CDC employees number 47,152.

1969

Shared Medical Systems incorporated.

1969

M & S Computing incorporated.

1969

Planning Research Corporation acquires five entities: Frederic R. Harris, Quinton Engineers, Budlong and Associates, Jacobs Company, and Economic Research Associates.

1969

Planning Research Corporation forms International Reservations Corporation.

1969

Data General Corporation is founded by Edson deCastro, formerly of Digital Equipment Corporation. Data General introduces the Nova, the first 16 bit computer.

1969

Lockheed Electronics ships the MAC-16.

1969

Dave Packard, one of the founders of Hewlett-Packard, is appointed U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense and serves from 1969 to 1971.

1969

Charge-Coupled-Devices (CCD) are invented by W. S. Boyle and G. E. Smith at Bell Labs.

1970's

1970

In March of this year, the "Auto Scribe" company was formed. Auto-Scribe (later to become Lexitron Corporation) developed the first marketable word processing system to utilize a video display screen with a CRT (cathode ray tube). By 1977, Lexitron Corporation had more video display terminals in use by more customers than any other vendor. Lexitron Corporation was bought out by Raytheon Company in the early 1980's. Raytheon's Data Systems branch was in turn bought out by Telex Data Systems soon afterward.

1970

General Electric sells its computer operations to Honeywell for $234 million.

1970

Intel Corporation announces the 1103 memory chip.

1970

BLISS (Basic Language for Implementation of System Software) is developed.

1970

(April) Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the PDP-11/20, its first 16 bit minicomputer and first member of the highly successful PDP-11 minicomputer family.

1970

(June) Digital Equipment Corporation reaches an installed computer base of over 8,000 machines, of which 1,800 are in Europe.

1970

(October) Digital Equipment Corporation opens its Mountain View California manufacturing operation.

1970

(December) Digital Equipment Corporation stock begins trading on the New York Stock Exchange.

1970

American Management Systems, Inc. is formed.

1970

American Computer Systems is formed.

1970

Integrated Software Systems is incorporated.

1970

IBM ships its first fourth generation computer, the System/370.

1970

Planning Research Corporation acquires five new entities: Tonps Engineering, Bruce Campbell and Associates, General Planning and Research Consultants, Vorlinden-Willemsen and Realtronics.

1970

Computer Logic Systems ships the SLS-18 computer.

1970

Data General ships the SuperNova.

1970

The CF-16A is introduced by Xerox Corporation.

1970

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) holds its first Computer Chess tournament.

1970

Hewlett-Packard reports revenues of $365 million with 16,000 employees.

1970

Chemical Bank installs the nation's first automated teller machine in Valdosta, Georgia.

1971

Marcian E. Hoff of Intel Corporation produces the first commercially available microprocessor, the INTEL 4004. It contained approximately 2,500 transistors.

1971

(May) CPT Corporation is founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Its first product is the Series 4200 word processor (to be shipped in 1972).

1971

(June) IBM introduces the System/370 Model 145, the first commercial computer utilizing all-semiconductor main memory.

1971

(November 19) Sperry Rand announces it will purchase RCA's computer operations for $70,500,000 and 15% of revenues from existing RCA computers.

1971

(November) Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the DEC system-10.

1971

The Alpha-16 is introduced by Computer Automation.

1971

Pascal programming language is developed by Niklaus Wirth.

1971

TUTOR programming language is developed.

1971

ISPL (Instruction Set Processor Language) is developed.

1971

Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces the CDC Cyber 70 computer family.

1971

American Computer and Software Company formed.

1971

Planning Research Corporation acquires Engineering Consultants, Greenwich Data Systems, and System Science Development Corporation.

1971

Wang Laboratories, Inc., announces its first word processing unit, the 1200, an electronically controlled dual cassette typing system.

1971

General Electric sells its computer operations to Honeywell, Inc.

1971

John Blankenbaker builds the Kenbak 1, one of the first personal computers.

1972

(June) Digital Equipment Corporation's annual sales grow from $38 million in 1967 to $188 million. Digital's employee base reaches 7,800.

1972

(October) Digital Equipment Corporation opens its Taiwan plant for core memory stringing operations.

1972

Intel introduces the 8008 and 8080 microprocessor chips. The 8080 became one of the first widely used microprocessors, holding up to 65,536 bytes of memory.

1972

MACSYSMA (Project MAC's Symbolic Manipulation) is developed.

1972

Control Data Corporation (CDC) enters into an agreement with National Cash Register Company (NCR) to form a new company

"Computer Peripherals Inc." for manufacturing computer peripherals. CDC acquires Syntonic Technology, Inc.

1972

Planning Research Corporation acquires three new entities: Information Labs, Inmarco, Foster Associates, and Storck, Cataldo, Caroll, and Associates.

1972

Triad Systems Corporation is formed.

1972

Wang Laboratories, Inc., enters the data processing market with the introduction of the 2200 series family of small business computers.

1972

Bally/Midway (a Chicago company) introduces "Space Invaders" and "Pac Man", two successful video games which originated in Japan.

1972

Atari introduces "Asteroids" video game.

1972

Playskool markets the "Playskool Computer" toy.

1972

The first pocket calculator is developed at Texas Instruments by J. S. Kilby, J. D. Merryman, and J. J. VanTassel.

1972

PRIME computer is founded.

1972

Hewlett-Packard introduces the first scientific hand-held calculator, the HP-35, which makes the engineer's slide rule obsolete. HP also branches into business computing with the HP 3000 minicomputer.

1972

CPT Corporation ships its first Series 4200 word processors. The 4200 series models sold for about $5,000. First year revenues amount to $84,000.

1972

Radio Shack releases its first calculator.

1973

(December) Digital Equipment Corporation opens its Hong Kong plant for core memory stringing operations.

1973

National Semiconductor sells the first single-board, 16-bit microcomputer, the IMP-16C.

1973

Seymour Cray leaves Control Data Corporation (CDC) and forms his own company, Cray Research. Cray built some of the world's largest and fastest "super" computers.

1973

PDS/MaGEN (Problem Descriptor System) is developed.

1973

CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors) is developed by Gary Kildall, a software consultant for Intel.

1973

IBM introduces the "Winchester" disk drives, its model 3340 direct access storage devices (DASD).

1973

Control Data Corporation (CDC) consolidated earnings reach $111 million. Combined financial services revenues totaled $1.5 billion. The CDC v. IBM anti-trust suit was settled, resulting in CDC acquiring the Service Bureau Corporation (SBC) from IBM. CDC acquires three data services operations from International Telephone and Telegraph Company. CDC increases its equity in Ticketron, Inc. to 99-1/2 percent. CDC also acquires Systems Resources, Inc. CDC signs a ten-year agreement with the USSR for broad scientific and technical cooperation in the field of computer technology. Employees number 43,982.

1973

University Computing Company changes its name to Wyly Corporation.

1973

The first National Computer Conference (NCC) is held in New York City.

1973

The MICRAL, the first microcomputer in France, is marketed.

1973

CPT Corporation, maker of office automation equipment including word processing systems, reports a revenue increase from $84,000 in 1972 to $2.1 million in 1973.

1973

The first microcomputer, MICRAL, was marketed by R2E, a French company, under the direction of Trong Truong.

1974

(March) Digital Equipment Corporation ships its 30,000th computer system.

1974

Microsoft Corporation is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.

1974

Motorola introduces the 6800 chip, an eight-bit processor.

1974

Intel introduces the 8080A, a faster version of the 8080 chip produced in 1972.

1974

Designers of Intel's 8080A chip form the Zylog Corporation.

1974

PL/M programming language is developed.

1974

(September) First release of IBM's SNA (System Network Architecture).

1974

Control Data Corporation (CDC) acquires Credit Francoise, First Holding, Ltd. and Davidson Computer Services, Inc.

1974

Computer Associates International is incorporated.

1974

Planning Research Corporation acquires B. A. Berko and Associates.

1974

U.S. Congress establishes the National Commission on Electronic Fund Transfers.

1975

Former Motorola engineers introduce the MOS Technology 6500 family of microprocessing units, similar to the Motorola 6800.

1975

The "Altair 8800" computer is advertised in Popular Electronics as a home computer that could be built from a kit. The Altair used a single 8080 microprocessor chip and had 1 Kb of memory.

1975

"C" programming language is developed.

1975

SPSS (Statistical Programs for the Social Sciences) programming

language is developed.

1975

IBM makes available remote access to mainframe hosts via SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) and 3270 terminal support.

1975

Control Data Corporation (CDC) begins deliveries of the CYBER 170 computer systems. CDC together with Honeywell, Inc., forms Magnetic Peripherals Inc. to manufacture peripheral disk products.

1975

Computervision Corporation is formed.

1975

Xerox pulls out of the mainframe computer market.

1975

The first computer store "The Computer Store", opens in Los Angeles, California.

1975

Homebrew Computer Club, one of the first personal computer users groups, is formed.

1975

MITS introduces the Altair, a 256 byte personal computer. The Altair was designed by Ed Roberts and Bill Yates. It sold as a kit for $397.

1976

Zylog Corporation introduces the Z80, a faster version of Intel's 8080A processing chip.

1976

Steve Jobs (21) (working at Hewlett-Packard) and Steve Wozniak (26) (working at Atari) get together and build and market the Apple I computer. Wozniak and Jobs form the Apple Computer Company on April Fool's day. The Apple I debuts at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California. In May, Jobs sells his VW and Wozniak sells his Hewlett-Packard programmable calculator to raise $1,350 to finance production of the Apple I boards. Jobs uses his parent's garage to build the first machines. In July, the Apple I computer board sells for $666.66.

1976

Tandem introduces the first fault-tolerant computer, the T/16.

1976

The Cray-1 supercomputer prototype is built by Cray Research, Inc. The Cray-1 contains 200,000 integrated circuits and can perform 100 million floating point operations per second (100 MFLOPS). 1976 Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces the PLATO computer based educational system. The STAR supercomputer was offered on data services network. CDC and International Computers, Ltd. Form Control Dataset, Ltd.

1976

NEC introduces the NEC 800 and NEC 900 systems, general purpose mainframe computers.

1976

Planning Research Corporation acquires Consoer, Townsend and Associates and sells Foster Associates.

1976

Wang Laboratories, Inc., introduces the WPS, a CRT-based word processor with disk storage for four thousand pages and a 350 word-per-minute letter quality printer.

1976

Warner Communications buys Atari video game company.

1977

(January) Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Mike Markkula incorporate Apple Computer. Apple production moves from Job's garage to a building in Stevens Creek Boulevard, Cupertino, California.

1977

(February) Michael Scott becomes president of Apple Computer.

1977

(April) Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak unveil the Apple II computer. It comes standard with 48k memory and sells for $1,298. It is the first personal computer to generate color graphics. The Apple II includes a keyboard, power supply and attractive case. The Apple logo is designed by Rob Janoff, art director for Regis McKenna Advertising.

1977

Tandy Corporation (parent company of Radio Shack) announces the TRS-80, Model 1 microcomputer. The TRS-80 comes standard with 4k memory and sells for $600.

1977

Commodore Business Machines introduces the Personal Electronic Transactor (PET) computer.

1977

Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces two new models of the CYBER 170 family: the CYBER 171 and the CYBER 176. CDC employees number 45,946.

1977

AGS Computers, Inc. forms AGS Information Services, Inc. and Fundamental Systems, Inc.

1977

Alpha Microsystems is formed.

1977

Chelsea Computer Systems is formed.

1977

Planning Research Corporation acquires Realty Graphic Company.

1977

Wang introduces its VS product line, a computer system based on virtual storage technology offering mainframe computing capabilities as well as word processing functions.

1977

The first "Computerland" franchise opens in Morristown, New Jersey, under the name "Computer Shack."

1977

Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces the PDP 11/780, its 32-bit supermini computer.

1977

Datapoint introduces the first local area network system, ARC.

1978

Over 300,000 word processing systems in use in the U.S. alone.

1978

Over 165,000 personal computers in use in the U.S.

1978

Total installed U.S. computer systems in use reaches 500,000.

1978

Apple Computer becomes one of the fastest growing companies in the U.S. Sales have increased ten fold in two years and dealer network numbers over 300.

1978

Intel Corp. markets the 8086 microprocessor chip.

1978

Wang Laboratories becomes the largest worldwide supplier of small business computers in North America and the largest worldwide supplier of CRT-based word processing systems. Wang has a user base of over 50,000 and $550 million in installed systems.

1978

Control Data Corporation (CDC) combined revenues for computer and financial services business reaches $2.7 billion. Successful performance testing is done on the CYBER 203 supercomputer which processed information at 100 million instructions per second.

1978

AGS Computers, Inc. acquires OHD for Computing Inc.

1978

American Software, Inc. formed by merger of American Computer Systems and American Computer and Software Company.

1978

MicroPro International is formed.

1978

The SPRINT business service is introduced.

1978

Texas Instruments introduces a digital speech toy, "Speak-and-Tell."

1978

The first Computer Dealer Exposition (COMDEX) trade show is held.

1979

(June) Apple Computer announces the Apple II+, with 48K memory. The Apple Education Foundation is founded with a goal to grant complete Apple systems to schools who wish to develop new classroom software and integrate computers into their curriculum.

1979

(October) Personal Software, Inc. releases VisiCalc electronic spreadsheet software for the Apple II. VisiCalc is demonstrated at the West Coast Computer Fair.

1979

Intel Corp. markets the 8088 microprocessor chip.

1979

IBM begins shipping the 4331 computer.

1979

THE SOURCE and COMPUSERVE computer services go on line.

1979

ADA programming language is developed by a team at CII-Honeywell-Bull in France. Development is directed by Jean Ichbiah.

1979

First networking management tools for IBM's SNA (System Network Architecture).

1979

Software Arts Company markets "Visicalc", a spreadsheet software program for personal computers.

1979

Control Data Corporation's (CDC) combined revenues increases from $2.7 billion (1978) to $3.2 billion. CDC announces the CYBER 203 the most powerful supercomputer it had ever built.

1979

Wang Laboratories introduces the OIS (Office Information Systems) series word processing system.

1979

MicroPro International introduces "WordStar", which becomes one of the most popular microcomputer based word processing software packages.

1979

Sperry Rand is renamed Sperry Corporation.

1979

Xavier Rodet, a researcher in Paris, begins early work on a voice synthesizer.

1979

The first compact discs are created by Philips in the Netherlands and by Sony in Japan (joint licensing agreements).

1980's

1980

(September) Apple Computer announces the Apple III computer.

1980

(December) Apple Computer goes public. An initial offering of 4.6 million shares of Apple common stock sell for $22 per share. Every share is bought within minutes of offering, making it the largest public offering since Ford went public in 1956.

1980

The U.S. Department of Defense issues the programming language "ADA" in an attempt to create a standard.

1980

Burroughs Corporation acquires the System Development Corporation, a leading manufacturer of information storage and retrieval equipment and data communications products.

1980

Burroughs Corporation acquires Memorex, a leading supplier and systems integrator for the U.S. Government.

1980

Control Data Corporation (CDC) announces the CYBER 205 supercomputer.

1980

Software Plus, Inc. is formed.

1980

Bell Laboratories licenses the UNIX operating system to Microsoft, who develops a Xenix system based on it.

1980

M&S Computing changes its name to Intergraph Corporation.

1980

Software Publishing Company is formed.

1980

Policy Management Systems Corporation is formed.

1980

First issue of Infoworld magazine is published.

1980

Total installed computers in use in the U.S. exceeds one million units.

1980

Hewlett-Packard introduces its first personal computer, the HP 85. HP reports revenues of $3 billion with 57,000 employees.

1980

Apollo Computer Inc. introduces the first commercially available high-performance professional microcomputer workstation. Apollo also offers the first network-wide virtual memory and transparent, distributed file system. Apollo is also the first to offer a multi-window display environment.

1980

Xerox publishes the "Blue Book" specifications which become the foundation for the IEEE 802.3 specifications.

1980

An IBM research team, including Philip Estridge, begins work on the "IBM PC" project.

1981

(August) IBM introduces the "IBM Personal Computer." The IBM PC comes with 64k memory and sells for $2,665 and has a processing speed of .2 MIPS.

1981

(November) Apple Computer has an installed base of Apple II computers of 300,000. Apple Computer has about 3,000 Apple dealers worldwide.

1981

Control Data Corporation (CDC) consolidated earnings reached $289.2 million. Combined revenues reach $4.1 billion. CDC announces the CDC 110 microcomputer. CDC acquires EIS, a database company. Employees number 60,627.

1981

Sun Microsystems introduces the "Sun 100" workstation. It comes with 256k memory and sells for $12,900.

1981

AGS Computers acquires Micro Distributors, Inc., and Eastman Design Company.

1981

Software AG System Group is formed.

1981

American Management Systems acquired Executive Systems, Inc., and Florida Computer Systems.

1981

Computer Associates International acquires Viking Data Systems, Inc.

1981

Continuum Company establishes Continuum Systems Research Inc.

1981

Chelsea Computer Systems changes its name to Hogan Associates.

1981

Policy Management Systems Corporation acquires assets of the PMS division of Siedels, Bruce, and Co.

1981

Wang Laboratories introduces the Wang Alliance system and the WangNet broadband-based local area network.

1981

Osborne Computer introduces the Osborne 1, the first portable microcomputer. The Osborne is bundled with Sorcim's Supercalc and Micropro's Wordstar software.

1981

Commodore introduces the VIC-20 home computer, which sells more than one million units.

1981

Dennis Hayes introduces his first SmartModem, a 300 bps device which provided a standard interface between communications software and the modem.

1982

(January 8) The anti-trust suit, United States of America vs. International Business Machines Corporation (filed in 1969) was withdrawn by the government.

1982

(February) Compaq Computer Corporation founded by Rod Canion, Bill Murto and Jim Harris.

1982

(November) COMPAQ Portable Computer introduced.

1982

(December) Apple Computer becomes the first personal computer company to reach $1 billion in annual sales.

1982

"Multiplan" software for the PC is introduced.

1982

Intel Corp. markets the 80286 microprocessor chip.

1982

IBM introduces the "IBM PC XT."

1982

Control Data Corporation (CDC) acquires Computer Industries Corporation and interests in Centronics Data Computer Corporation and Star Computer. The CYBERNET SuperCenter, with nine large-scale computers, adds a CYBER 205 supercomputer. The CYBER set a performance record for supercomputers of 1.3 billion calculations in 1.666 seconds.

1982

Lotus Development Corporation is formed.

1982

Alpha Microsystems acquires Alpha Microsystems Europe.

1982

Sun Microsystems is founded.

1982

Computer Associates International merges with Capex, Corporation.

1982

Continuum Company establishes Continuum Company U.K. Ltd.

1982

Hogan Associates changes its name to Hogan Systems.

1982

SEI Corporation acquires TMI System Corporation.

1982

Wang Laboratories introduces the Wang PC and the Wang Professional Image Computer (PIC) which uses a camera as a data entry device to the Wang PC to add visuals to text stored in the computer.

1982

"Time" magazine names the personal computer its "Man of the Year."

1982

American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) settles the law suit brought by the Justice Department and gives up 22 Bell System companies.

1982

Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP 9000 technical computer with 32 bit superchip technology, called the first desktop mainframe.

1982

Apollo Computer Inc. introduces the first high-performance professional color (microcomputer) workstation.

1982

Lotus Development Corp. announces Lotus 1-2-3 for the PC.

1982

First Commodore 64 ships. Commodore Corp. also upgrades VIC 20 to 8k of RAM.

1982

Sun Microsystems is incorporated and sells 400 workstations its first year.

1982

Kaypro introduces the portable Kaypro II.

1982

Fifth Generation Computer Project is begun by Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry under the newly formed Institute for New Generation Computer Technology (ICOT). Project is given $450 million in funding to develop fifth generation technologies over a ten-year period. Japanese scientist Kazohiro Fuchi is a leader of this team.

1983

(January) The Apple IIe (priced at $1,395) and the Lisa (priced at $9,995) are introduced.

1983

(January) COMPAQ Portable Computer rolled out through network of Authorized COMPAQ Computer Dealers. Compaq takes in revenues of $111 million, the greatest first-year sales in the history of American business.

1983

(February) Kaypro releases the successor to its first computer, known as the Kaypro 2X.

1983

(October) COMPAQ PLUS introduced and shipped.

1983

(April) John Sculley, formerly president of Pepsi-Cola, is elected Apple's new president and CEO. Scully takes over from Mike Markkula.

1983

(May) Apple Computer enters the Fortune 500 at number 411 in under five years. Apple II computers will be given to about 10,000 California schools by September this year.

1983

(December) The Apple III+ computer is announced.

1983

(December) Compaq Computer Corporation has its initial public stock offering and raises $67 million. During this year, Compaq ships more than 53,000 portable computers and employs a total of 615 people at year end.

1983

Control Data Corporation (CDC) uses its supercomputer operations division to create a new company, ETA Systems, Inc.

1983

Computer Associates International acquires Information Unlimited Software, Inc.

1983

AGX Computers acquires DISC, Inc.

1983

Software Plus changes its name to Ashton-Tate.

1983

Hogan Systems acquires Henco Research, Inc.

1983

Human Edge Software Company is founded.

1983

Planning Research Corporation acquires Sterling Systems.

1983

Policy Management Systems Corporation acquires Mutual Data and Business Computer Systems.

1983

The total number of installed computers in use in the U.S. surpasses 10 million.

1983

IBM acquires Rolm Corporation. Rolm becomes an IBM telecommunications subsidiary.

1983

Coleco announces the ADAM personal computer. The ADAM uses 80k of RAM.

1983

Mitch Kapor and his staff develop Lotus 1-2-3 electronic spreadsheet software for the IBM PC.

1983

Lotus 1-2-3 replaces VisiCalc as the primary spreadsheet software for personal computers.

1983

Cray Research introduces the Cray-2 supercomputer capable of performing 1 billion floating point operations per second (FLOPS).

1983

NEC announces the SX-1 and SX-2 supercomputers.

1983

Hewlett-Packard introduces the first HP touchscreen personal computer, the HP 150.

1983

Apollo Computer Inc. introduces the first desktop microcomputer workstation under $15,000, the DN300.

1983

Borland releases Turbo Pascal programming language.

1983

IBM announces the PC Jr.

1983

Osborne Computer Company declares bankruptcy.

1983

Clive Sinclair proposes concepts in wafer-scale integration.

1984

(January) Apple Computer runs its "1984" commercial during the Superbowl broadcast. The Apple Macintosh computer, selling for $2,495, is unveiled.

1984

(April) Apple Computer announces the Apple IIc (selling for $1,295) and discontinues the Apple III.

1984

(April) COMPAQ Personal Computers are introduced into Europe.

1984

(May) Atari Corporation, manufacturer and marketer of personal computers and video game systems, is founded. In July, Atari Corporation acquires certain microcomputer and video game assets from the Atari, Inc. subsidiary of Warner Communications, Inc. (WCI).

1984

(June) COMPAQ DESKPRO family of desktop personal computers are introduced and shipped.

1984

(September) Compaq Computer Corporation opens a wholly owned subsidiary in France.

1984

(September) Kaypro releases the 16-bit, IBM compatible Kaypro 16.

1984

(November) Apple sells its two millionth Apple II.

1984

(December) During the year, Compaq ships more than 149,000 personal computers worldwide and hired more than 700 people. The company employed more than 1,300 people at year-end.

1984

"Multiplan" software for the Macintosh is introduced.

1984

IBM introduces the "IBM PC AT."

1984

Control Data Corporation (CDC) decides to phase-out of the plug-compatible peripheral equipment business based on long term strategic considerations. Communications Solutions, Inc. (CSI) was acquired from Visicorp for approximately $5 million. CDC consolidated earnings decreased to $31.6 million (down 80 percent from 1983) while combined revenues were $5 billion. Employees number 54,123. CDC faces liquidity problems due to downturn in computer industry resulting in excessive inventories. CDC continues to undergo financial difficulties and restructuring attempts from 1984 to 1986.

1984

Sun Microsystems introduces the "Sun 4/100" workstation for $18,900. The Sun 4/100 has 8MB memory and a processing speed of 7 MIPS.

1984

AGS Computers acquires Software Design Associates, Inc. and System Strategies, Inc.

1984

Alpha Microsystems acquired Oaragon Computer Service, Inc. and Computer Service Network.

1984

Computer Associates International acquires Sorcim Corporation and Johnson Systems, Inc.

1984

Intergraph acquires controlling interest in Tangent System Corporation and Intergraph Systems of Canada.

1984

Human Edge Software Company and Edge Development Limited Partnership form Human Edge Software Joint Venture.

1984

SEI Corporation acquires Financial Services Group of Index Systems Corporation.

1984

Policy Management Systems Corporation acquires Compuclaim Corporation.

1984

Wyly Corporation changes its name to UCCEL Corporation.

1984

Wang Laboratories acquires a 20% interest in InteCom Inc., a Texas-based manufacturer of advanced voice, data communications and large scale integrated switching systems.

1984

Total installed U.S. computer base value reaches $146 million.

1984

Hewlett-Packard pioneers inkjet printing technology with the introduction of the HP Thinkjet printer.

1984

Apollo Computer Inc. is the first to offer 1 MIPS-class workstations (DN660, DN460) (MIPS=Million Instructions Per Second). Apollo introduces its network server (DSP80).

1984

Apple Computer wins copyright infringement suit against Franklin Computer, setting a precedent for PC software protection.

1984

Tandy Corporation (parent company of Radio Shack) announces the Tandy 1000 PC compatible computer and DeskMate application software.

1984

The Modified Final Judgement (MFJ) that broke up the AT&T companies goes into effect.

1984

Commodore SX-64 portable computer introduced.

1985

(January) The Lisa computer is officially renamed the Macintosh XL.

1985

(February) Steve Wozniak resigns from Apple Computer to start a new company that will develop products in the home video area.

1985

America Online ("AOL") is founded. (By June 30, 2000, AOL had reached a total of 23.2 million members.)

1985

(February) Compaq Computer Corporation reports second year earnings (for 1984) 0f $329 million, a computer industry record.

1985

(February) Kaypro becomes the first company to develop and market an IBM PC AT clone, the Kaypro 286i.

1985

(March) Kaypro announces the Kaypro 2000 laptop computer.

1985

(April) COMPAQ DESKPRO 286 and COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 introduced and shipped.

1985

(April) The Macintosh XL (formerly called the "Lisa") is dropped from the Apple product line. Over 400,000 Apple IIc computers have been sold in first year of production.

1985

(June) Cray Research announces the Cray-2 supercomputer.

1985

(September) Steven Jobs resigns from Apple Computer and later forms NEXT Inc. computer company.

1985

(October) The first full sized Cray-2 supercomputer is delivered to NASA's Ames facility.

1985

(October) Kaypro begins offering the Kaypro PC Desktop computer.

1985

(November) "Windows" software is introduced.

1985

(November) Compaq Computer Corporation opens a wholly owned subsidiary in Canada.

1985

(December) Compaq Computer Corporation securities began trading on the New York Stock Exchange. Compaq reaches a total employment of 1,860 at year end.

1985

Intel Corp. markets the 80386 microprocessor chip.

1985

American Management Systems sells Florida Computer Systems.

1985

Lotus Development Corporation acquires assets of Software Arts, and Dataspeed.

1985

Ashton-Tate acquires Multimate International Corporation and Forefront Corporation.

1985

Computer Associates International acquires Value Software, Inc.

1985

Human Edge registers with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

1985

Planning Research Corporation acquires National Business Consultants, and Kentrol International.

1985

Software Publishing Company acquires Harvard Software.

1985

Policy Management Systems Corporation acquires Commercial Services.

1985

Wang Laboratories signs a joint manufacturing agreement with the People's Republic of China to produce Wang hardware and software products and open additional growth opportunities in the Asia/Pacific area.

1985

Aldus introduces "Pagemaker" desktop publishing software for the Apple Macintosh.

1985

IBM introduces the Sierra products, the IBM 3090 large mainframes. IBM announces Token Ring LAN technology.

1985

Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP Laserjet printer, its most successful product to date.

1985

Apollo Computer Inc. is the first to expand network-wide virtual memory over remote links (T1), and the first to offer UNIX System V and BSD 4.2 on one workstation (Domain/IX). Also offers first advanced user interface on 32-bit workstations (Domain/Dialogue).

1985

The term "Vaporware" is coined for software that is talked about and promoted but does not yet exist in reality.

1986

(January) Macintosh Plus and LaserWriter Plus announced.

1986

(February) Compaq Computer Corporation reports third year earnings of more than $503 million for 1985. COMPAQ II Portable is introduced and shipped.

1986

(February) Apple Computer purchases a Cray X-MP/48 supercomputer (valued at $15.5 million) to simulate future hardware and software architectures and accelerate new product development.

1986

(April) Compaq Computer Corporation joins the Fortune 500 faster than any company in history. Compaq ships its 500,000th computer.

1986

Microsoft Corporation becomes a public company.

1986

(May) IBM releases "Netview" network management system.

1986

(June) IBM releases Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking.

1986

(September) COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 introduced and shipped.

1986

Burroughs Corporation merges with Sperry Rand Corporation to form UNISYS, to become the second largest computer company in the world.

1986

Lotus Development Corporation acquires ISYS Corporation.

1986

Policy Management Systems Corporation acquires Insurance Companies Inspector Bureau.

1986

Atari Corporation introduces the ATARI 1040ST personal computer. The 1040 ST is the first personal computer to offer a megabyte of memory for less than $1,000. The ATARI ST line utilizes the Motorola 6800 chip, a 32 bit processor over a 16-bit channel. The ST line computers have a speed of 8 MHz. Other Atari products include the 2600 VCS and the 7800 ProSystem video game consoles. The company's primary competitor in the computer video game market is Nintendo.

1986

Wang Laboratories signs its largest contract to date, a $480 million five-year agreement with the U.S. Air Force Mini-Computer Multi-User (AMMUS) program. The contract calls for approximately 1,600 Wang mini-computers for management information systems at U.S. Air Force bases worldwide.

1986

Compaq becomes a Fortune 500 company and introduces its first personal computer based on the Intel 80386 microprocessor chip.

1986

Computerworld magazine publishes its 1,000th issue.

1986

Installed computers in the U.S. exceeds 30 million.

1986

Hewlett-Packard introduces a new family of computer systems based on innovative new HP Precision Architecture. The development effort, code-named "Spectrum program," cost more than $250 million over five years of research and development. Hewlett-Packard reports revenues of $7.1 billion with 82,000 employees and over 10,000 products.

1986

Apollo Computer Inc. is first to implement virtual memory graphics, PHIGS structures. Also first computer manufacturer to ship 30,000 workstations, and first to integrate personal computer processor in desktop workstation. Apollo introduces its under $20,000 color workstation and under $10,000 open bus workstation (Series 3000).

1986

Compaq releases Deskpro 386, beating IBM to a 386 PC release.

1986

Mitch Kapor, founder of Lotus Development Corp., leaves the company.

1986

IBM announces the RT PC (Reduced Instruction Set Technology), its first UNIX workstation product, but fails to successfully grab the workstation marketplace.

1987

(March) IBM releases SAA (Systems Application Architecture).

1987

(April) Microsoft Corporation and IBM announce a joint development agreement for OS/2.

1987

(June) Aldus goes public and sells 2.2 million shares at $20 per share.

1987

(June) Texas Instruments announces the first AI microprocessor chip.

1987

(June) Cray Research announces the Cray 2S supercomputer.

1987

(August) Borland introduces "Quatro" spreadsheet software.

1987

(August) IBM sells 5.9 million of its shares in Intel for $52.50 per share.

1987

(August) DCA acquires Fox Research, a manufacturer of PC network products, for $10 million.

1987

(September) DECWorld becomes the world's largest vendor sponsored trade show.

1987

(September) Microsoft releases "Windows 386" and Microsoft "Works" for the PC.

1987

(October 4) Atari Corporation purchases all outstanding shares of the Federated Group, Inc. ("Federated") a retailer of consumer electronics products.

1987

(October) Motorola releases the 68030 microprocessor chip.

1987

(October 19) Stock market takes a major blow. Computer industry firms stocks drop sharply.

1987

(November) Lotus releases "Lotus Agenda" an information manager for microcomputers.

1987

(November) Advanced Transducer Devices is purchased by Televideo.

1987

(November) IBM reports 1 million PS/2s shipped worldwide.

1987

(November) Mitch Kapor announces he will form company called "On Technology", to develop "person compatible" software.

1987

(November) Excel for PCs, running under Windows, is shipped.

1987

(November) Compaq Computer Corporation ships its 1 millionth personal computer.

1987

(December) OS/2, version 1.0 is shipped.

1987

(December) Western Digital purchases Tandon's disk drive business.

1987

(December) IBM sells its remaining shares in Intel Corp. (3.1 million shares).

1987

(December) Apple uses its Hypercard software to distribute a 1987 hypercard supplement on diskette for Macintosh computers.

1987

(December) Honeywell Bull announces the PC AP-X and PC SP personal computers, based on the 80286 and 80386 microprocessors.

1987

(December) Unisys Corporation announces the Personal Workstation/2 microcomputers, based on the 80286 and 80386 microprocessors.

1987

Apple Computer introduces the Mac II personal computer with 1 MB memory. It sells for $5,498.

1987

IBM introduces the "IBM Personal System/2" series.

1987

Sun Microsystems introduces its first workstation based on a RISC microprocessor.

1987

ETA Systems introduces its supercomputer line, the ETA-10.

1987

Compaq computer attains sales revenue of $1 billion.

1987

Conner Peripherals attains first year sales revenues of $113 million, which beats Compaq's previous record of $111 million.

1987

Cray Research introduces the Cray-2S which is 40% faster than the Cray-2.

1987

Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the MicroVax 3500 and MicroVax 3600 models and the Vaxstation 2000 workstation computer.

1987

Apollo Computer Inc. introduces first under $19,000 4 MIPS color workstation (Series 4000); pioneered the concept of Network Computing with the introduction of the Network Computing System (NCS); and introduced the first commercially-available product based on X Window System, X11 (Open Dialogue user interface management system).

1987

First PC FAX boards shown at Comdex.

1987

Lotus Development Corporation drops copyright protection on Lotus 1-

2-3.

1987

First shipment of Pagemaker software for DOS microcomputers.

1987

Ventura Publisher software ships.

1987

NEC announces the Powermate 386 personal computer.

1988

(February) Compaq Computer Corporation reports fifth-year sales of $1.2 billion dollars, setting the record as the fastest company to reach that mark.

1988

(February) Hewlett-Packard introduces the DeskJet ink-jet printer.

1988

(February) Prime Computer acquires Computervision for $433 million.

1988

(February) Cray Research announces the Cray Y-MP, its most powerful supercomputer.

1988

(March 17) Apple Computer files suit against Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett-Packard for alleged infringement on Apple's icon driven user interface. Case revolves around a 1985 license agreement between Apple and Microsoft.

1988

(April) Sun Microsystems announces its 80386i based workstations.

1988

(April) CDC announces the Cyber 960 series of mid range computers.

1988

(April) Tandy announces an erasable optical disk.

1988

(May) Amdahl announces its 5990 mainframe computer.

1988

(May) Cray Research announces the Cray X-MP EA supercomputer.

1988

(May) The Open Software Foundation is formed by IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Apollo, Nixdorf and others to establish a standard, counter to AT&T's Unix.

1988

(June) Apple Computer buys Orion, a developer of SNA (Systems Network Architecture) software.

1988

(June) Samsung acquires Micro Five, a microcomputer manufacturer.

1988

(September) "Gang of Nine" is formed by Compaq and eight other PC companies who set up the EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) as a challenge to IBM's Microchannel Architecture (MCA).

1988

(October) "Presentation Manager" software is shipped.

1988

(November) 23-year-old Robert T. Morris, Jr., unleashes a computer virus program that enters the Internet network and affects over 6,000 computers on the system. (Morris is prosecuted and sentenced in April/May 1990).

1988

(December) Compaq Computer Corporation reaches worldwide employment of approximately 6,000.

1988

Microsoft Corporation, with sales of $800 million, becomes the largest PC software company. Microsoft's Windows 286 version 2.0 and Windows 386 version 2.0 are shipped.

1988

UNISYS acquires Timeplex, an industry leader in voice and data networking.

UNISYS acquires Convergent Technologies.

1988

Atari Corporation discontinues operation of The Federated Group, Inc. ("Federated).

1988

Apollo, Ardent and Stellar announce the first personal "supercomputer," systems designed for 3-D graphics applications.

1988

Motorola announces the 88000 reduced instruction set (RISC) microprocessor chip.

1988

Apollo Computer Inc. is first to demonstrate workstation incorporating Motorola 33 MHz MC68030 chip (Series 4500).

1988

Hewlett-Packard records sales of $10 billion for the first time. HP becomes listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, its first listing outside the U.S., and ranks in the top 50 of Fortune 500. Employees number 87,000 with over 10,000 products.

1988

IBM introduces the "System/400" series of mid-sized computers.

IBM ships OS/2 version 1.1 with Presentation Manager.

1988

3-Com Corp. ships the first LAN Manager-based networks.

1989

(February) Compaq Computer Corporation reports sixth-year sales of $2.1 billion. Purchases 744 acres of land for future expansion adjacent to Compaq Center in northwest Houston.

1989

(April 12, 1989) Hewlett-Packard Company acquires Apollo Computer Inc., maker of high-performance professional microcomputer workstations. Apollo becomes "Apollo Systems Division" of Hewlett-Packard. Apollo brings to HP an installed base of more than 90,000 workstations in more than 3,300 corporate-customer sites world-wide.

1989

(May) DESKPRO 386/33 introduced and shipped by Compaq.

1989

(June) Compaq Computer Corporation becomes the second largest supplier of business personal computers in Europe, surpassing Apple and Olivetti.

1989

(September) Compaq Computer Corporation purchases the former Wang Laboratories manufacturing facility in Sterling, Scotland for international service and repair operations.

1989

((October) COMPAQ LTE/286 and COMPAQ LTE personal computers introduced by Compaq Computer Corporation, the first notebook-sized computers to offer full PC functionality in a package measuring just 8-1/2 by 11 inches.

1989

(November 1) NEC Information Systems, Inc. and NEC Home Electronics (U.S.A.) Inc. merged to form a new company called NEC Technologies, Inc. Products include laptop computers, monitors, audio/visual, professional systems, home entertainment and optical media.

1989

(November) Compaq Computer Corporation introduces the COMPAQ SYSTEMPRO Personal Computer System, COMPAQ DESKPRO 486/25, COMPAQ LAN MANAGER 386/486, and MS OS/2 Standard Version 1.2.

1989

Hewlett-Packard announces revenues of $11.9 billion.

1989

Control Data Corporation (CDC) discontinues the ETA Systems supercomputer operation and streamlines the CYBER mainframe business. CDC undergoes corporate staff reduction and a temporary realignment of its bank financing agreement. CDC sells off Action Data Services, makers of real-time data processing and support products, to Primerica Corporation. CDC sells off its Control Data Institutes (educational centers) to Human Capital Corporation.

Control Data Corporation signs a contract with the People's Republic of China for a meteorological processing and forecasting system utilizing a CYBER 990, a CYBER 960 and 13 CYBER 910 workstations. The contract is estimated at $12.6 million.

1989

Steven Jobs markets the NeXT computer with 8 MB memory, 5 MIPS processing speed and sales price of $9,995.

1989

Apollo Computer (owned by Hewlett-Packard) announces first RISC Graphics Workstation (Series 10000VS), Apollo also introduces the first under $4,000 workstation, the Series 2500.

1989

Xerox Inc. sues Apple Computer alleging that Apple unlawfully borrowed from the Xerox Star's graphical user interface.

1989

First OS/2 Presentation Manager applications are shipped.

1989

Intel Corporation announces the 80486 chip, a highly integrated 32-bit microprocessor combining 80386 compatibility, RISC-style CPU, 80387 math co-processor compatibility, 8-Kilobyte on-chip cache and built-in multiprocessing support. The 80486 has a reported capability of holding 1.16 million transistors and will be about four times faster than the 80386 processor. Initial uses of the 80486 chip will be for LAN servers and high-end workstations.

1989

According to Desk/Trend Inc. of Mountainview, California, shipment of 5-1/4 inch floppies fell from 16.6 million in 1988 to 14.1 million in 1989. Shipments of 3.5 inch (microfloppies) rise to 21.3 million in 1989 from 18.1 million in 1988.

1989

Motorola files patent infringement suit against Hitachi's H8/532 microcontroller. Hitachi counter sues against Motorola's 6830 microprocessor.

1989

Apple II GS is produced by Apple Computer.

1989

Marc Andreesen and Tim Berners-Lee

Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN, a high-energy research laboratory on the French-Swish border, was the inventor of the World Wide Web concept and HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol), of the Internet. Berners-Lee invented the Web in 1989 by writing the first web server program and putting hypertext information online. The Web and HTTP made it possible for many more people to understand and use the Internet and were instrumental in the Internet's amazing growth since the early 1990's. Together with the development of the Web browser, Mosaic, by Marc Andreesen in 1993, these events sparked the user friendly Internet that we know today. Andreesen worked with his friend Eric Bina on the original 9000-lines of code that became Mosaic. Marc Andreesen also went on to co-found Netscape, which made the extremely popular Netscape Navigator web browser software. (Netscape was originally called "Electric Media," then "Mosaic Communications," and finally "Netscape." By 1996, 46 million copies of Netscape were in use worldwide. Netscape made its initial public offering (IPO) on August 9, 1995, and with stock opening at $28 per share, doubled and Netscape reached a value of $3 billion. (AOL purchased Netscape Communications in November of 1998.) (Ref: "Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer," Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine, McGraw-Hill, 2000.)

1990

(April/May) Robert T. Morris, Jr., is convicted of computer violations for his part in creating a computer virus program that entered and disrupted the Internet network in November 1988. Morris was sentenced to three years probation, 400 hours of community service and a $10,000 fine. The Morris case was likely the most publicized computer "hacking" case of the 1980's.

1990

Manpower Inc., world's largest temporary help agency, buys Wang Laboratories for approximately $6 per share. Manpower forms "Wang Service" to maintain the equipment base and sells to Groupe Bull. Zenith Electronics Corp. sells its computer business to Groupe Bull for $496.4 million.

1990

IBM announces its first full 80486 based system, utilizing a PS/2 model 70. This 25 MHz system reports twice the performance of a 33 MHz 386 based system and almost three times the performance of a 25 MHz 386 PC.

IBM also announces a 16 Megabit dynamic random access memory chip. The 16 Mb chip can store the equivalent of 1,600 pages of double-spaced, typewritten text and operates at speeds calculated in nanoseconds (billionths of a second). IBM enters into negotiations with the Soviet government for the wide-scale distribution of personal computers in the Soviet Union.

1990

(March) An Wang, founder, and Chief Executive Officer of Wang Laboratories dies. Mr. Wang is succeeded as CEO and chairman of the board by Wang Laboratories President Richard Miller, at Wang headquarters in Lowell, Massachusetts.

1990

AT&T signs a wide-range memorandum of understanding with the Soviet Ministry of Communications aimed at exploring cooperation in telecommunications services, equipment manufacture and research and development.

1991

Microsoft ships DOS 5.0 for PCs.

1991

IBM and Wang enter into agreement to have Wang market some PS/2 products under Wang name. IBM and Apple enter into agreement to develop software that runs on both OS/2 and Macintosh platforms.

1991

(June) Novell acquires Digital Research Inc. (DRI) makers of DR DOS and other products.

1991

(June) Borland International, Inc. acquires Ashton-Tate (makers of dBase III and IV).

1991

(July) UNISYS announces planned layoffs of 10,000 employees.

1991

(July) U. S. District Judge Harold Green rules that the AT&T divestiture rule prohibiting the Regional Bell Operating Companies from offering information services such as on-line news services and electronic advertising would be lifted. This opens the door to "Baby-Bells" to offer on-line service to corporate and individual phone customers

1991

(July) U.S. District Judge Vaughn Walker rules that Microsoft Corp. and Hewlett-Packard Co. cannot argue at trial that Apple's Macintosh display technology lacks the originality needed for copyright protection. Judge also ruled that Apple's suit against Microsoft and HP did not constitute a breach of the 1985 licensing contract between Apple and Microsoft.

1991

(Date approximate) Nationwide recession affects computer industry, driving some prices lower and forcing many companies to look seriously at downsizing and layoffs.

1991

Analysts predict that new technologies, such as pen-based computing, imaging products, CD-ROM, multi-media and groupware, will continue to grow.

1991

The Advanced Computing Environment group is formed by a collection of vendors seeking to use the MIPS Computer Systems RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processing architecture or the 80X86 microprocessor technology from Intel and develop source code compatibility between SCO UNIX and System V release of Unix, and other compatibilities. The founding members included Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq Computer Company, MIPS Computer Systems, SCO and Microsoft. The ACE effort did not meet its objectives and was later dissolved.

1992

(January) Lotus Development Corp. announces planned layoffs of 10 percent of its 4,200 person workforce in response to hard times in sales and marketing.

1992

(January) IBM plans to cut 325,000 workers from its ranks. Two thirds of these are in the U.S., the remainder are in foreign countries.

1993

Compaq Computer of Houston, Texas, introduces its Presario line of desktop personal computers.

1993

Everex Systems of Fremont, California, enters Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings and seeks to sell company.

1993

IBM introduces its "Blue Lightning" line of microprocessor chips with 32 bit interface and many with clock-doubling design.

1993

NCR of Dayton, Ohio, announces plans to resell NEC's UltraLite Versa notebook computer under the name "Safari 3180." This is a 486/SL 33 MHz machine with 4 Mb memory, two PCMCIA II slots and removable hard drive. Sells for about $3,900 to $5,200.

1993

(August) Apple Computer introduces its Newton MessagePad personal digital assistant (PDA). The Newton is a handheld executive organizer that can automatically add an appointment to a calendar, send faxes, or dial a telephone. It starts at about $700.

1993

IBM announces its first PowerPC System, a low end RS/6000 workstation running AIX, and capable of running 3D graphics and synchronized audio and video.

1993

IBM announces its PS/2 Model 95 560, a Pentium based 60-MHz machine, for about $13,000.

1993

Sharp Electronics of Mahwah, Japan, announces the PI-700 Expert Pad personal digital assistant (PDA), with a list price of $899. The Expert Pad is designed to compete with the Apple Newton MessagePad.

1993

Eastman Kodak dissolves its subsidiary "Imagery Software" shortly after a patent infringement suit was filed by Wang. Kodak pulls some of the Imagery work force back into its main operations and plans to concentrate on filling OEM orders for Novell and Lotus.

1993

Microsoft Corporation of Redmond, Washington, started its alpha testing of "Windows '95" (also called "Chicago" or "Windows 4.0"). Windows '95 is the first true 32-bit desktop version of Windows. Microsoft also beta tests DOS 6.2.

1993

Microsoft Corporation is sued by Wang Laboratories of Lowell, Massachusetts, regarding Wang's patent on an OLE (object linking and embedding) type technology.

1993

Borland International of Scotts Valley, California, loses in copyright infringement suits brought against it by Lotus Development Corporation of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1993

Symantec of Cupertino, California, announces plans to acquire Fifth Generation Systems.

1993

Stac Electronics files suit against Microsoft Corporation for alleged patent infringement and Microsoft Corporation files counter suit. Suits relate to Stac's Stacker 3.1 software and Microsoft's DOS 6.0 DoubleSpace compression utility.

1993

Autodesk of Susalito, California, acquires Ithaca Software of Alameda, California.

1993

Microsoft Corporation announces Word 6.0 word processing software.

1993

WordPerfect Corporation, Orem, Utah, announces WordPerfect 6.0 for Windows.

1993

Marc Andreesen and the Mosaic and Netscape Browsers.

Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN, a high-energy research laboratory on the French-Swish border, was the inventor of the World Wide Web concept and HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol), of the Internet. Berners-Lee invented the Web in 1989 by writing the first web server program and putting hypertext information online. The Web and HTTP made it possible for many more people to understand and use the Internet and were instrumental in the Internet's amazing growth since the early 1990's. Together with the development of the Web browser, Mosaic, by Marc Andreesen in 1993, these events sparked the user friendly Internet that we know today. Andreesen worked with his friend Eric Bina on the original 9000-lines of code that became Mosaic. Marc Andreesen also went on to co-found Netscape, which made the extremely popular Netscape Navigator web browser software. (Netscape was originally called "Electric Media," then "Mosaic Communications," and finally "Netscape." By 1996, 46 million copies of Netscape were in use worldwide. Netscape made its initial public offering (IPO) on August 9, 1995, and with stock opening at $28 per share, doubled and Netscape reached a value of $3 billion. (AOL purchased Netscape Communications in November of 1998.) (Ref: "Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer," Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine, McGraw-Hill, 2000.)

1993

U.S. market for object oriented database management systems (ODBMS) exceed $78 million, an increase of over 100% from prior year

1994

Intel Corporation reports a problem with some of the Pentium chips and offers replacement chips and corrects problem in newer chips sold.

1994

Aspen Computer of Buffalo, New York, introduces the Aspen Select series of notebook computers, starting at around $2,000.

1994

Commax Technology of San Jose, California, announces the Smartbook III line of 486-based notebook computers.

1994

(March) Novell acquires privately owned WordPerfect Corporation in a stock exchange. Novell also purchased Borland's "Quatro Pro" spreadsheet business for $145 million.

1994

Compaq Computer introduces the pen-based Concerto notebook computer but discontinues it about 10 months later.

1994

IBM introduces the ThinkPad 510C color subnotebook computer, with 4 Mb memory and 200 Mb hard drive.

1994

(August) DEC announced plans to lay off 20,000 employees in the next twelve month period as part of a restructuring effort.

1994

IBM announces plans to pursue a single-brand product strategy, with its IBM Personal Computer Company, and phase out PS/2 and Value Point names.

1994

Zenith Data Systems begins shipping its first Pentium based desktop computer systems.

1994

Lew Platt becomes chairman and CEO of Hewlett-Packard. HP's sales for 1994 are $25 billion, with a net income of $1.6 billion.

1994

Commercial interest in the INTERNET continues to grow while the estimated number of individuals with access to the "net" is roughly estimated at 20-25 million. On-line services such as "Prodigy," "Compuserve," and "America-On-Line" also experience continued increases in membership. Compuserve and America-On-Line provide access to some of the INTERNET functions. Prodigy Services Company announced its world wide web "Mosaic" style browser. America-On-Line announces plans to add world wide web (WWW) access. IBM plans to offer INTERNET access through its IBM Global Network, through Avantis, its U.S. subsidiary.

1994

Btrieve Technologies of Austin, Texas, splits off from Novell, Inc.

1994

WordPerfect Corporation announces PerfectOffice 3.0, which incorporates WordPerfect 6.0, WordPerfect Presentations, Info Central, and QuatroPro 6.0. Perfect Office incorporates Novell's proprietary networking features.

1994

NeXT Computer of Redwood City, California, releases NextStep 3.3, its object-oriented operating system.

1994

Borland International of Scotts Valley, California, acquires ReportSmith of San Mateo, California for $18 million in a stock deal.

1994

Symantec of Cupertino, California, acquires Central Pont Software of Beaverton, Oregon, in a $60 million stock deal. Symantec also acquires SLR Systems of Butler, Pennsylvania, a maker of programming tools.

1994

Lotus Development Corporation acquires FastSwitch, of Wayne, Pennsylania, in a $70 million stock deal.

1994

McAffee Associates of Santa Clara acquires Brightwork Development.

1994

OnTechnology announces plans to acquire Da Vinci Systems. Both are E-mail product producers.

1994

MIPS Technologies releases its R8000 supercomputer chip. The R8000 is a two-chip processor which claims performance similar to Cray Research computers. It will also offer a scaled down version called the T5 for desktop computing.

1995

Microsoft Corporation continues its plans to form "Microsoft Network," a new on-line service and receives some criticism from other industry players at a February conference in New York.

1995

The Group of Seven (G7) industrialized nations holds the first technology-oriented summit in Belgium, February 25th and 26th. Discussions including linking the world's telecommunications and data networks together for improved interoperability.

1995

NEC announces its SX-4 Series parallel-processor supercomputer which can handle up to 1 TeraFLOPS (1 trillion floating point operations per second). The SX-4 utilizes a balanced, scalable, parallel-vector architecture.

1995

IBM announces plans to ship OS/2 with all its new PCs.

1995

America-OnLine, Inc. signs an agreement with the German media company Bertelsmann AG to form a commercial on-line service in Germany, England, France and possibly other countries.

1995

Apple Computer's Power Macintosh 6100/66 DOS compatible comes with both the PowerPC chip and a 486 DX2/66 chip, allowing users to switch back and forth between the Macintosh operating system, DOS and Windows.

1995

William Shatner (former starship captain) becomes CEO of Toronto based computer animation company C.O.R.E. Digital Pictures.

1995

Jack Kemp, former chief of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) joins the board of directors of Oracle Corporation.

1995

Apple announces plans to release its Copeland microkernel operating system by the end of the year. Copeland supports 256 terrabytes of storage. Apple releases the Powermac 9500, the first Mac to use the PCI bus. Apple also releases its PowerPC based PowerBook notebook computers. Apple releases Newton 2.0 operating system.

1995

Microsoft introduces Internet Explorer, its Windows 95 Internet browser.

Microsoft releases Visual Foxpro for Windows.

Microsoft releases Windows 95 with a world-wide media campaign.

1995

IBM releases IBM Anti Virus software.

1995

MacAfee Associates releases VirusScan for Windows 95.1995 Netscape Communications Corporation has its initial public offering and the stock jumps to over $140 per share in first few weeks.

 1995

Compaq releases its 133 MHz Pentium systems.

 1995

Autodesk of San Rafael, California, acquires Automated Methods, a GIS provider.

 1995

Cisco Systems of San Jose, California, acquires Combinet, Inc., makers of Everyware, low cost ISDN remote access devices.

 1995

Intel of Santa Clara, California announces plans to release its 150 MHz and 133 MHz P6 chips soon.

 1995

IBM and Motorola announce plans to release the PowerPC chip, with clock speeds of 166 MHz.

1995

Hitachi of Japan announced plans to open up a U.S. company based in San Jose, California, called Hitachi PC, to market notebook PCs in the U.S.

1995

Adobe Systems acquires Frame Technology for $460 million.

1995

Seagate Technology of Scotts Valley, California announced plans to acquire Conner Peripherals in a $1.04 billion deal.

1995

Compaq Computer of Houston, Texas, announced plans to acquire NetWorth of Irving, Texas, a producer of Fast Ethernet hubs, switches and other network products.

1995

America Online announces Global Network Navigator (GNN), a World Wide Web-based information service.

1996

InforWorld magazine rates Powersoft's Powerbuilder development tool as the best of its class for 1996.

Intel Corporation introduces the MMX microprocessor chip.

1996

Bell Atlantic proposes a $21.3 billion merger with Nynex.

British Telecom offers $21.3 billion for MCI.

SBC Communications offers $16.5 billion for Pacific Telesis.

WorldCom purchases MFS Communications for $13.6 billion.

1997

(January) Microsoft continues to expand its influence with Office 97,

Microsoft Internet Explorer, and other products. Bill Gates' estimated worth (mostly Microsoft stock) is estimated at $23 billion, making him the world's richest man.

(January) America Online (AOL) implements new pricing plans, including unlimited access ($19.95). Jump in system usage causes major problems for users trying to gain access to AOL. Makes front page of San Francisco Chronicle. AOL now at 7 million subscribers. Some users file law suits against AOL. Attorney generals of 36 different states are involved. AOL pledges to reduce some of its emphasis on marketing and put more money into increasing its network operations. AOL offers qualifying subscribers a refund or free time to make up for access problems during the months of December (96) and January (97).

1997

Microsoft Corporation invests $1 billion in TV cable company Comcast, to develop high bandwidth communication to U.S. homes.

1997

WorldCom acquires Compuserve and then spun off Compuserve's online service to America Online.

1997

(October) WorldCom Inc. makes a bid to take over MCI Communications Corporation, a deal estimated at over $30 billion. WorldCom was started in 1983 as LDDS (Long Distance Discount Services) by Bernard J. Ebbers, now chairman of WorldCom. WorldCom's annual revenue (1996) was approximately $7 billion.

1997

(October) Asian and U.S. stock markets begin a period of volatile, heavy trading. U.S. market falls over 500 points in one day (loses over 7% of market value) and rises over 300 points the following day. Technology stocks are one of the major areas affected.

(October) The Justice Department filed a motion in Federal District Court, alleging that Microsoft had violated a 1994 consent decree dealing with certain aspects of licensing the Windows operating system to computer manufacturers. Specifically, the Justice Department asked the court to stop Microsoft from tying the use of its Windows 95 operating system to the use of its Internet browser, a tool to navigate the Internet.

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[[Note: (After 1997, only a few selected highlights are included in this Chronology.)]]

======================================================================================================================

1998

U.S. Government continues in its investigation into Microsoft Corporation's practices regarding its bundling of software and issues relating to Microsoft's Internet Explorer software.

1998

(January 26) Compaq Computer announces it will acquire Digital Equipment Corporation for an estimated $9.6 billion.

1999

Time Magazine selects Jeff Bezos (Amazon.com founder) as its Man of the Year.

AOL and Time-Warner announce merger plans.

Microsoft releases Windows 98 SE (Windows 98 Second Edition).

Windows 2000 released.

(December) Turn of the century from December 31,1999 to January 1, 2000 is the "Y2K Event" that many computer companies and professionals were concerned about and preparing for. The actual event results were far less damaging than expected and few if any real Y2K related emergencies were reported.

 

2000

(March 8) -- Intel Corporation introduced the Intel® Pentium® III processor 1 GHz (gigahertz or 1,000 megahertz), the world's highest performance microprocessor for PCs. The Pentium III processor at 1 GHz delivers a 15 percent performance gain over the fastest processors on the market today.

(April 3) Following a negative ruling by Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson, Microsoft said that it plans to request an expedited review by the U.S. Court of Appeals after the remedies phase and final decree. The appeal will stress a 1998 U.S. Court of Appeals decision that affirmed the company's right to support the Internet in the Windows operating system.

(May) "I Love you." Virus spreads worldwide. Apparently from the Philippines. Virus specifically targets Microsoft Outlook mail. Once received, if the recipient opens the attachment, it re-sends itself to every listing in the Outlook address book. Also affects .jpg and other files.

(June 8) Microsoft Litigation: On June 8, 2000, Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson ordered that Microsoft be broken into two companies, one to develop and sell the Windows operating system, and the other to handle Microsoft Office, Internet technologies and other products. The idea is to prevent the companies from combining the products and features in a way that harms competition. Microsoft is pursuing an Appeal.

(June 30) America Online (AOL) reaches a total of 23.2 million members. Its Compuserve 2000 Service and Compuserve Classic memberships total 2.8 million. AOL set a subscriber growth record by adding 5.6 million members in the year passed. Consolidated revenues reached nearly $6.9 billion, a 43% increase over the previous year. AOL also announces the release of AOL version 6.0.

(September 14) Microsoft Corporation officially releases Windows ME (Windows Millennium Edition). Windows ME contains a digital video editing application, an application to restore accidentally deleted files, as well as improved support for digital camera and imaging support and improved networking capability. (Microsoft's planned "Whistler" operating system, to be targeted for offices and home use, is scheduled for release in 2001.)

(October 27) Microsoft Corporation reports that hackers had gained entry to its sensitive database and obtained confidential software information.

 

2001

(January 11) Closing of America Online Inc.'s $106.3 billion acquisition of Time Warner, which combines the world's largest Internet services provider with the world's largest media company. This was the largest merger deal in U.S. history.

 

 2001

Personal Computers with CPU's in excess of 1.4 Gigahertz speed are on the market.

(June 29) Judge reverses lower court decision to split up Microsoft Corporation, but also states that Microsoft did act illegally in its actions to maintain its dominant position in the area of PC Operating Systems.

 

 2002

May 2002, Hewlett-Packard merges with Compaq Computer

Overview:

HP Letter to Customers
HP - Compaq Merger Summary
HP-Compaq Merger Facts

 

 

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